The Twelfth Imam, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan (Al-Mahdi-Sahibuz Zaman) (The hidden Imam who is expected to return)
world will not come to an end,” said the Prophet Muhammad, “ until a
man from my family (Ahlul Bayt) and of my name shall be master of the
world, When you see a green ensign coming from the direction of
Khorasan, then join them, for the Imam of God will be with the standards
who will be called al-Mahdi.”
“The Mahdi will be descended from me, he will be a man with an open
countenance and a face with a high nose. He will fill the earth with
equity and with justice, just as it has been filled with tyranny and
oppression.” (Biharul Anwar, Majlisi)
Imam Muhammad Abul Qasim (al Mahdi) (as) , the last in the line of
the Twelve Ithna Ashari Imams was born on 15th Shaban 255 Hijri in
Samarra, Iraq. His father was the Eleventh Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) and
his mother was Nargis Khatoon, granddaughter of the Emperor of Rum.
It was 8th Rabiul Awwal 260 Hijri when our Twelfth Imam led the
funeral prayer of his father Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) . He was only
Five years old, yet the whole crowd of Muslims including the Abbasid
caliph of that time Al-Mu’tamid followed the young Imam without
Once the prayers were over and the Imam went inside the house, that
the Caliph realized the full implication and significance of the
occasion and he immediately ordered his soldiers to enter the house and
search for the young Imam.
They did not find any one inside the house. The Caliph was very angry
at this incompetence of ministers and other officials who were unable
to find a boy of five who had just led the prayers and had just
disappeared. The caliph had no inkling of the secrets that God did not
want to reveal. He went back to his palace and into the luxurious life
of a playboy king while the world around him squeezed his empire into
The Imam’s period of lesser concealment began immediately after he
led the funeral prayers and disappeared inside the house. This was in
the year 260 Hijri.
The doctrine of ‘Ghaiba’ or concealment, declares simply that the
Imam has been withdrawn by God from the eyes of people, that his life
has been miraculously prolonged, that he has been seen from time to
time, has been in correspondence with others, and has maintained a
control over the guidance of the followers and the believers and the
safety of Islam from its enemies.
In the following few pages we shall try to bring some evidence from
the Qur’an and the authentic Hadith of the Prophet to prove the point to
This is an essential belief that Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi (as) Sahibuz
zaman, is alive and guide’s his followers whenever such need arises.
This is based on the verses of the Holy Qur’an that express the idea of
Divine Guidance through the Prophets and Imams.
“And among those whom we have created are a people who guide others with truth, and in accordance therewith act justly.” (7:180)
“We shall test you with something of fear and hunger,
some loss in goods or lives or the fruits (of your toil), but give glad
tidings to those who patiently persevere” (2:155)
A great Hanafi scholar Muhammad ibn Muslim cites Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq
(as) explaining the meaning of the above Verse. Imam indicated that
there would be signs indicating the coming (reappearance) of al-Mahdi
(as) which are the means whereby God tests the faithful.
“Something of fear” is a reference to masses perishing by contagious
diseases; “hunger” is a reference to high prices of foodstuffs; “Some
loss in goods” is a reference to scarcity and famines; “Lives” is a
reference to mass destruction of human lives, probably global wars;
“Fruits” is a reference to lengthy periods of draughts; so when all that
happens, then give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere.”
“This is its interpretation,” continued the Imam , quoting Verse 7 of
Sura 3, which indicates that “only those who are firmly grounded in
knowledge are capable of interpreting the verses of the Holy Qur’an”,
adding, “ We the Ahlul Bayt are the ones firmly grounded in knowledge”.
In the book “Yanabi al Muaddah”, the Hanafi scholar and Mufti of
Istanbul during the Osmani Caliphate in Turkey writes on page 321,
quoting Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (as) interpreting Verse 83, Sura III of the
Holy Qur’an comments as follows:-
“When the Qa’im al-Mahdi reappears, there will be no land on earth
where the Kalima is not said. “This could be a reference to the fact
that by the time al-Mahdi reappears, all continents of the world will
have Muslim populations. They already do now.
After presenting the above proofs from the Qur’an, the following are
authentic traditions from the Prophet of God regarding Imam Mahdi (as) .
At the end of Vol.2 of Fara’idh al-simtain and on page 269 Ibn
Khaldun’s ‘Mukaddimah’ , it is related from Ibn Abbas, that the Holy
Prophet said, “ ‘Ali is Imam of my nation and my successor therein after
me, and among his offspring is the awaited Qa’im who shall fill the
world with justice and equity as it was filled with injustice and
The Prophet further elaborates, “ beware of doubting, for to doubt
the order of God, the Mighty, the Sublime, is apostasy (Kufr). Ibn
Khaldun also states that “ When imprisoned with his mother in the house,
he entered a sort of well or pit in the house that his family occupies
at Samarrah, Iraq, and there he disappeared, but he is to come forth at
the end of the age to fill the earth with justice”.
Allama Jalaluddin Suyuti quotes in his book Jalalul- Oyun Vol.6 page
50. “ The Hour shall not come till Al-Mahdi takes charge on earth on my
behalf,” said the Messenger of God. Allama Suytu also quotes Imam Ahmed
ibn Hanbal that famous companion Abu Said Khadhri quoting the Messenger
of God saying, “I bring you glad tidings of al-Mahdi, God shall send him
to my nation, in a time different from your own, and after a series of
earthquakes, and he shall fill the earth with justice and equity as it
was filled with injustice and oppression.
He shall distribute the wealth equitably among the inhabitants of the
earth. In the manual in which he sets forth the many duties and
privileges of pilgrims, Majlisi has given an accepted form for a short
letter in Arabic, which anyone can write, and sent to his Imam of the
It may be placed on the tomb of any of the Imams, or it may be
fastened and sealed, and covered with clean earth and cast into the sea
or river or a deep well. In any case it will reach the Hidden Imam and
he will give his personal attention.
There is a famous saying of Imam Husayn (as) about the twelfth Imam.
“The Ninth of my descendants is the Imam who will rise with the Truth.
God will grant life to earth through him after its death. The true faith
will supersede all religions through him.
His absence shall be lengthy during which many people will go astray.
Only a few will remain on the Right Path. They shall suffer pains,
people will put pressure on them, saying,” let us know when this promise
of the Return of the Mahdi is fulfilled”. Those who will bear the pains
and denials patiently will get the same rewards as those who
accompanied the Prophet during his expeditions for Jihad.”
Imam Zainul Abedeen (as) has said, “ Of us one will be born whose
birth will remain secret so much so that the people will say that he was
not born at all.”
Imam Muhammad al Baqir (as) is quoted by Kulaini in Al-Kafi, “ Nine
Imams after Husayn are destined, the last of them will be al-Qaim.”
Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) is quoted in Ilal al-shara’i saying, “ The
fifth of the descendants of my son Musa will be the Qa’im a descendant
of the Prophet (S).
Imam Musa ibn Ja’far (as) was asked once, “ Are the Qa’im with the
truth?” The Imam replied, “ I also rise truthfully, but the real Qa’im
is he who will remove the enemies of God from earth and will fill it
with justice. He shall be my fifth descendant. His absence will be
lengthy during which multitudes will turn away from the faith while only
a few will uphold it”.
Imam ‘Ali al-Ridha’ (as) in the above saying of Imam Husayn (as) that
due to the excessive the length of the concealment of the 12th Imam
many believers will have doubts about his existence. Many will question
the very longevity of his life and the usefulness of his presence as an
Imam. Ridha’ said, “O Da’bil, my son Muhammad (as) will come when I am
After him, his great grandson will be named Muhammad (as) who will be
the Qa’im. He will be awaited during his absence. When he appears, the
world shall bow down before him.”
Imam Muhammad Taqi (as) has said “ The Qa’im will be from amongst us the third of my descendants”.
Imam ‘Ali Naqi (as) said, “ My successor will be my son Hasan; but
what will be your condition during the reign of Hasan’s successor”?
Those who were present asked, “Why, what do you mean by that”?
Imam replied, “you will not have the chance to see him, later you
will not be allowed to mention his name”. Then the Imam was asked as to
how they should mention him. Imam replied, “ You may say that he is the
last of Muhammad’s (infallible) descendants. “
Some people asked Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) , “ your forefathers have
said that the earth would never be without knowing the sign of Allah
(Hujjatullah) till Doomsday, and he who dies without knowing the Imam of
his time will die the death of ignorance”. Imam replied, “ That was as
true as the shining day.
They inquired as to who would be the Imam who would be the sign of
the Mercy of God after his death, Imam replied, “ He will be my son, the
namesake of the Holy Prophet (Muhammad Abul Qasim). He who died without
knowing him will die the death of ignorance.
His absence will be so lengthy that the ignorant will wander puzzled
and would surely stray from the Right Path. But the Righteous shall
remain steadfast and pray for their Imam to appear within their life
All these predictions were recorded since the time of the Holy
Prophet who himself prophesied the advent of the Mahdi. (Read this
Hadith in the story of the 5th Imam).
As in the above saying of Imam Husayn (as) that due to the excessive
length of the concealment of the 12th Imam many believers will have
doubts about his existence. Many will question the very longevity of his
life and the usefulness of his presence as an Imam.
To the question of existence, we have seen above the many Verses from
the Qur’an and Hadith of the Prophet and all the Eleven Imams. We have
also read quotations from the Books of Ahlul Sunna wal Jama’a and many
scholars and philosophers from the earliest times to the present.
As far as the longevity of his life, in Qur’anic terms it is not
difficult to explain. Prophet Jesus is alive and will come out with the
12th Imam. Prophet Sheeth and Prophet Khidhr are still alive according
to the Verdict of the Qur’an. If God keeps his guided ones alive for a
certain purpose there should not be any doubt.
As for the usefulness of his concealed existence, there are numerous
occasions when the Imam miraculously helped those who called him for
During the period of Ghaibate Sughra (the period of lesser
concealment) from the time of the death of his father Imam Hasan
al-Askari (as) in the year 260 Hijri, our 12th Imam was seen only by a
few people who were appointed his ambassadors (Safeer) on his behalf to
convey his teachings to the believers. These Four Ambassadors were as
1. Abu Amr Uthman ibn Sa’id al Asadi. He was a deputy of 10th Imam
‘Ali Naqi (as) and after his death, of the 11th Imam Hasan al-Askari
(as) and after his death, of our 12th Imam.
Having performed these duties of conveying the messages from the Imam
to the believers and the teachings of Ahlul Bayt, he died in Baghdad
and was buried there.
2. Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Othman al Amri, the son of the first
Ambassador was appointed the 2nd Safeer of our 12th Imam. He died in 305
Hijri (917 AD) .
3. Abul Qasim Husayn ibn Rauh Nawbakhti was appointed the Imam’s 3rd
Safeer. He was a top ranking scholar and Faqeeh, renowned for his
knowledge of all Islamic sciences. He was also a very pious man. Under
the directions of the 12th Imam, his 3rd Safeer Husayn ibn Rauh
performed his duties as Safeer for the next 15 years. He died in the
year 320 Hijri
4. Abul Hasan ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al-Samari. He was the last Safeer of
the 12th Imam, succeeding Husayn ibn Rauh as directed by the Imam. He
performed his duties for 9 years and died on the 15th Shabaan 329 Hijri
(May 15, 941 AD) Having being asked on his deathbed as to who would
succeed him, he replied: Providence now wishes to give the matter
another shape the duration of which is known to God alone.”
After Abul Hasan there was no Safeer. In this sorrowful year, i.e.
329 Hijri, many scholars such as ‘Ali ibn Babwayh Qummi and Muhammad ibn
Yaqub Kulaini, the learned compiler of al-Kafi also died. Besides these
events, an extra ordinary phenomenon was also witnessed. In the sky so
many stars did shoot that it seemed as if Doomsday had come.
That year was named as the year of the dispersal of stars. After
this, followed a dark period because no saffeer was left to directly
approach the Imam al Mahdi (as) . It is also related that Imam himself
told his last Safeer that there will not be any more appointments of
When asked what the believers would do, the Imam replied, “follow the
Foqaha of our Deen, those who have knowledge of Qur’an, who protect
Deen and would not follow their own desires”.
In answering those who question the usefulness of the Imam in
concealment, there are numerous occasions mentioned in books of many
Ulemas, such as Shaikh Mufid (d413 Hijri) Allama Hilli (d. 726) /shahid
Thalith Noorullah Shoostry (d.1019). They have mentioned in their own
period as to how the 12th Imam was approached and gave help. All these
stories are mentioned in their own books.
Here in this book I would like to mention two such occurrences that
happened to those who have told their experiences to me personally. Both
of them are now dead and it is important for me to tell these
happenings before my own death.
I lived in Najaf in the fifties and during my stay there I used to
visit Karbala’ nearly every week. In the town of Karbala’ there was a
Dispensary run by the Pakistan Government. The Pharmacist there was one
Mr.Rizvi who not only distributed medicine to the poor of Karbala’ but
also looked after the patients and sometimes even prescribed medicine
There was no qualified doctor to attend to the patient. Mr.Rizvi used
to go to Baghdad on Friday to get stocks from the Hospital there. On
one such occasion when he was coming back by Minibus, the Bus driver
stopped at Mehmudiya, half way Karbala’. It was late in the evening. The
Bus Driver told the passenger’s that there was something wrong with the
Bus engine and he could not proceed until next morning.
The passengers would have to provide for their own Board and lodging
themselves for the night. Mr.Rizvi was very upset. He had a box load of
medicine with him and if he would not be in Karbala’, the next morning
his patients would be disappointed and some of them might have to go
without any medicine. He was standing by the Road side, in this little
town Mehmudiya, some 40 miles from Karbala’.
Night was getting darker. People were sitting in dark coffee houses
drinking coffee or playing card games etc. As time passed his worries
increased. He realized that if he does not move from there soon, some
youngsters might come and vandalize his goods and stocks of medicine. So
he prayed to God and the words uttered were “Ya Sahebuz Zaman Udrikny”
O’Imam of the Time, help me.
Moments later, he saw a jeep car stopped right there where he was
standing and a very good looking young Arab gentleman got out of the
Jeep and told him, “Do you want to go to Karbala’”? He was astonished at
this help and said yes, of course I want to go to Karbala’. He said,
“put your box in the car and sit beside me”.
The man drove the car and arrived in Karbala’ an hour later. Without
asking him the address of his destination he took him straight to the
door of the Dispensary and stopped. Mr.Rizvi got down, brought his box
of medicine down and started to look for some money in his pocket to
give something to the Driver of the Jeep.
When he turned to look for him, there was nothing there. There was no
jeep car, no man, nothing. The road was completely empty. He bowed down
on the dust of Karbala’ to thank God for sending the help through the
Imam of the Time. He told me this story personally and he had no doubt
in his mind that the help came from the 12th Imam.
From that time onward his devotion towards helping the people of
Karbala’ had increased a hundred fold. He died some years later while
still helping his patients in that little Dispensary in Karbala’.
My second story was from the lips of an Englishman, Col.Abdullah
Baines. During the 2nd World War he was stationed at the Royal Air Force
Base at Habbaniyah, a town some 22 miles south of Baghdad. During the
height of the war there was some scare in Britain that Hitler might
invade Iraq to grab oilfields.
It was 1942 that the Commander of the Base decided to evacuate
families of the people living at the base. Col.Baines was given the task
of leading the caravan of jeep cars full of women and children from
Baghdad to Damascus. They had to pass through the Desert where there was
no road and they had to find their way by looking at the stars as
Captains of the ship sail in the sea and find their way to their
Col.Baines was a Christian but he was well versed in Islamic history
and especially the history concerning the lives of the Imams. He had
read many books about the 12th Imam and was well aware of the stories of
those faithful who believe who receive help from the Imam in their
distress. They call the Imam and help comes to them. All the women and
children with Col.Baines were all Christians and not Muslims.
Half way through their journey of this caravan of five jeeps through
the desert, they lost their way in a desert storm. They were hopelessly
lost, going round and round in the desert, not knowing where to go and
how to find their way to Damascus. They decided to camp there. Made a
circle of jeep cars and all travelers sat down on the ground to await a
miracle to get them out of that endless desert. They did not know what
One day and one night passed like that and when the next day’s sun
came scorching, all of them were in despair. Water stocks had gone and
thirsty children began to demand for water. Col.Baines did not know what
to do. Then he remembered that he read somewhere that if you are in
such distress, call the Imam of the time for help.
He put up his hands in the shape of prayer, closed his eyes and asked
in his heart for the Imam to help. He said, “we are all Christians and
we may be sinners, but these children with me are innocent , they do not
deserve to die in this manner. O’Imam of the Time, help them get out of
this desert”. His prayers had not even ended when he saw that two
horsemen were coming right through the eye of the storm.
They came near the circle of jeep cars, approached Col.Baines, and
asked, “ Do you all wish to go to Damascus”. He said “yes of course”.
They said, “follow us”. The jeeps lined up and followed the horsemen.
They had gone a few miles until the way became clear for them. Their
guides told them to go straight to the West and they will reach
In a few days they all reached Damascus and safety. Col.Baines
realized that his prayers to the 12th Imam were heard and help arrived
from the Imam.
Once the war was over, Col.Bains embraced Islam, changed his name to
Abdullah Baines and after his retirement from the Army, settled in Kent.
He has himself told me his story before his death in 1965. He also told
me to publicize this as much as possible for this is the truth and
people should not refrain from telling the truth.
There are numerous experiences of this kind of help given by the Imam
to people in distress who call him for help. Ayatollah al-Jazaeri told
us two such stories of his own experiences in Iran when help came from
the Imam to people.
Although absent and unrepresented, Imam al-Mahdi (as) still guides
people and defends the faith. Even though unseen, the Imam supervises
the world affairs and guides it. This curtain will exist as long as
Providence deems it necessary.
The time will come, which may be too late for many of us, but when
the curtain of absence will be removed, Imam al-Mahdi (as) will reappear
and as predicted by the Prophet, fill the world with justice and
equity, discarding the prevailing injustices and oppressions. May God
bring about his early reappearance and ease his coming.
Wal-hum- do— lillahi- Rabbil- Alameen. Wassalato- Wassalamo Ala -Rasulehil Karim.
Imam Hussain was the grandson of the
Holy Prophet Muhammad, through his
daughter, Lady Fatima and son-in-law,
Imam Ali, peace be upon them all.
: الحسین بن علی بن أبی طالب Husayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib (Arabic; 11 January 626 AD – 10 October 680 AD) (3rd / 4th Sha'aban 4 AH – 10th Muharram 61 AH), sometimes spelled Hussein, was the son of Ali ibn Abi Ṭalib (fourth Rashidun Caliph
of Sunni Islam, and first Imam of Shia Islam) and Fatimah Zahra
(daughter of Muhammad) and the younger brother of Hasan ibn Ali. Husayn
is an important figure in Islam, as he is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt (the household of Muhammad) and Ahl al-Kisa, as well as being the third Shia Imam.
Husayn is highly regarded by Shiite Muslims because he refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph because he considered the rule of the Umayyads
unjust.As a consequence, he left Medina, his home town, and traveled to
Mecca. There, the people of Kufa sent letters to him, asking his help
and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled towards Kufa. At
Karbala his caravan was intercepted by Yazid I's army. He was killed and
beheaded in the Battle of Karbala in 680 (61 AH) by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan,
along with most of his family and companions. The annual memorial for
him, his family, his children and his companions is called Ashura
(tenth day of Muharram) and is a day of mourning for Shiite Muslims.
The killings at Karbala fueled the later Shiite movements.Anger at
Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine and
ultimately overthrow the Umayyad Caliphate
Inside Khana-e-Kaaba in Makkah on 13th Rajab (600 A.D.)
In Masjid-e-Kufa in Iraq on 21st Ramzan 40 A.H. (661 AD)
Cause of Death/Buried :
Hit by an attach during prayers and buried in Najaf-e-Ashraf (Iraq)
Manner of birth
Imam Ali (a.s.) is the first child in the family of Bani-Hashem whose
both selfs are children of Hashem. His father Hazrat Abu-Taleb(a.s.) is
the son of Hazrat Abdul-Mottaleb(a.s.) the son of Hashem bin Abd-Manaf
and his mother is Bibi Fatemah bint-e-Asad(a.s.) who is the son of Hashem
bin abd-manaf. The Hashemi family in the tribe of Qoraish is well-known
(famous) for its moral virtues and high (supreme) humanistic characteristics
among the Arab tribes. Magnanimity, generosity, courage and so many other
virtues are characteristics of Bani-hashem. Moreover, each of these virtues
at its highest degree exist in Imam Ali's (a.s.) existence. Bibi Fatemah
bint-e-Asad(a.s.) went to the holy Kaaba when in labour pain and came
close to the wall of Kaaba and said "O God, I have firm faith in
you, the Prophets and the books sent by you and also the speech of my
grand father the builder of this house . O God, in consideration to the
respect of the one who built this house and for the sake of the child
in my womb make the birth of this child easy". An instant later,
in front of the eyes of Hazrat Abbass bin Abdul-Mottaleb(a.s.) and Hazrat
Yazeed bin Taaf(r.a.) the south east wall of Kaaba cracked and Bibi Fatemah(a.s.)
entered the Kaaba; the wall closed again. She was the guest of Allah(swt)
for three days in the holiest place in the universe and there she gave
birth to her child - Imam Ali(a.s.). Three days after the thirteenth of
Rajab, thirty years passed the year of the Elephat; Bibi Fatemah bint-e-Asad,
came out of the same cleavage in wall which opened again and said: "I
heared a message from the unsean to call him Ali".
Period of childhood
The Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) stayed with his parents. Since it was Allah's(swt)
will for him to gain more perfection, therefore, the honoured Prophet(sawaw)
from the beginning of his birth took care of his indirect education. Untill
an unsual famine occurred in Mecca. Hazrat Abu-Taleb(a.s.) the uncle of
the Prophet(sawaw) having many children faced a heavy living expense.
The honoured Prophet (sawaw) with the consultation of his uncle
Hazrat Abbas(a.s.), came to agreement that each one of them take one of
the children of Hazrat Abu-Taleb(a.s.) with him as to make a relief for
Hazrat Abu-Taleb(a.s.). Therefore Hazrat Abbas(a.s.) took Jaffar and the
Prophet(sawaw) took Imam Ali(a.s.) to his house. In this way the
Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) was completely besides the Prophet(sawaw).
Imam Ali(a.s.) was always accompanying the Prophet(sawaw) even when
the Prophet(sawaw) would leave the town and go to the mountain and
Appointment of the Prophet(sawaw) and the Holy Imam Ali (a.s
One of the virtues of the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) is that he is the first
one to testify the Prophethood of Prophet Mohammad(sawaw). Ibn Abeel
Al-Hadeed says related to this : Know that among the great , big and scholastic
theologians of the Mutazilites there is no dispute that Ali bin Abee-Taleb
is the first person to believe in Islam; and to support the messenger
The Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) the first supporter to the honoured Prophet(sawaw
After the revelation of Allah(swt), the selection of the Prophet Mohammad(sawaw)
for prophethood and the three years of secret preaching, finally, the
messenger of revelation arrived and the order for public preaching was
given. At this juncture, the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) was the only testifier
of the Prophet(sawaw); And was the only companion and sympathetic
to his holiness in the invitation arranged to acquainte his relatives
to Islam and to call them to the religion of Allah(swt). In this invitation
the Prophet(sawaw) asked the people present: "who is among
you to help me in this way so to be my brother, successor and representative
among you". Only Imam Ali(a.s.) answered : "O Prophet of Allah,
I will support you in this way". The Prophet(sawaw) after three
times repeating the question and hearing the same answer said : O my relatives;
Know that Ali(a.s.) is my brother , successor and Caliph after me among
you. Of the other glories of the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) is his perfect courage
in sleeping in the Prophet's (sawaw) bed , therefore, nullifing
the plot of the idol- worshipers to kill the Prophet(sawaw); And
, furthermore, prepared the ground for the Prophet's (sawaw) migration.
After the migration of his the Prophet(sawaw) and Imam Ali(a.s.)
to Madina, we explain two examples of the virtues of Imam Ali (a.s.):
1- Sacrifice and endangering in the field of struggle His presence in
26 battles of the 27 battles of the prophet (p) and participation in different
expeditions are of the glories and virtues of his holiness.
2- Registering (keeping) and writing the revelation [the Holy Quran]:
Writing the revelation, organizing (arranging) many of the historical
and political documents and writing propagational and invitation letters,
both in Makkah and Madina, And for this reason he is considered one of
the writers of the revelation and memorizers of the Quran.
It was in this period that the Prophet(sawaw) issued the decree
of Muslim brotherhood, concluded the contract of brotherhood with the
Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) and said to him: "You are my brother in this
world and in the here after, swearing by Allah who has appointed me with
the truth. I choose you as my brother, a brotherhood that is to the extent
of both worlds". The Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) the son-in-law of the Prophet(sawaw):
The pond of Khom
In the last Year of the Prophet's (sawaw) life, after finishing
the rituals of piligrammage and when returning in a place called the Khom
pond close to Johfa , he ordered to stop, because the revelation commanded
the Prophet(sawaw) to complete his message. After the noon prayer
the Prophet(sawaw) went up the (mimbar) pulpit of the camels' saddles
and said: "O people, it is soon that I answer the call of Allah and
go from among you. what do you think about me". People said: "we
witness that you have propagated the religion of Allah". Prophet(sawaw)
said:" Don't you witness that there is no God but the one God and
Mohammad is his slave and messenger". People said:"Yes, we witness".
Then the Prophet(sawaw) raised the hand of the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.)
and said: "O People! among the believers who is more worthy than
them selves. People said : "God and his prophet know better".
Then the Prophet(sawaw) said:" O People, Allah is my master,
I am your master and of whomever I am the master and leader, Ali is his
master and leader as well. And repeated this sentence three times. then
the people congratulated this selection to the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) and
swore allegience to him.
The Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) after the death of the honoured Prophet(sawaw
After the death of the honoured Prophet(sawaw) because of special
conditions that had arised, the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) withdrew from the
scene of the society and choose silence; He neither participated in any
struggle nor spoke officially in the society . He put the sword in the
sheath and engaged with individual duties and educating the individuals.
Activities of the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) in this period were briefly
1- Interpretation of the Quran, solving religious problems and decreeing
the rule of incidents that didn't have a resemblance along the 23 Years
of the Prophet's (sawaw) life.
2- Answering to questions of scholars from other religions and other towns.
3- Expressing the rule for many of the new events which didn't occur previously
4- Solving the problems when the caliphate system faced dead ends in political
matters and some other problems.
5- Educating and raising a group who had pure conscience and prepared
soul for spiritual journey.
6- Work and strife to secure the life of many of the poor and disabled
to the extent that he would establish gardends and extract aqueducts and
then would give them as endowments in the way of Allah(swt).
Period of the caliphate of the Holy Imam Ali(a.s
In the time of his aliphate many wars occurred as Siffin, Jamal and Nahrawan
which had specific consequences. After the war of Nahrawan and the suppression
of the Kharijites, some of the Kharijities among whom was Abdul-Rahman
bin Moljam Moradi and Barak bin Abdulla Tameemi and Amr bin Bakr-tameemi
in one of the nights got together and considered the ciruimstances of
that time the blood-sheds and civil wars and remembered Nahrawan and their
deads and finally reached to this conclusion that the reason for this
blood-shed and brothers killing are the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.). Ibn Moljam
undertook killing the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) and on the ninetheenth night
of the month of Ramadan accompanied with some stayed in the mosque of
Kufa. That night the Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) was a guest of his doughter's
and was aware of the morning accident. When he mentioned this subject
to his daughter, Umm-e-Kulsoom said: Tomorrow send Joada to the mosque.
The Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) said: It is not possible to escape the Godly decree,
then he fastened his belt and while humming these two verses he went to
the mosque. Fasten your back firmly for death Because death will meet
you and when death comes to you don't fear or scream While the Holy Imam
Ali (a.s.) was in prostation, Ibn Moljam hit him with the sword on his
forehead and blood from his holiness head streamed in the altar and blood
dyed his honoured beard. In this condition his holiness said: I swear
by the Allah of Kaaba that I was successful. Then related verse 55 from
From it we created you and into it we shall send you back and from it
we raise you a second time.
The Holy Imam Ali(a.s.) was at his last moment of his life still thinking
of the welfare and happiness of the peoples adviced his chidlren relatives
and all the Muslims saying : I advice you of piety and to organize your
deeds and always think of causing reconciliation among the Muslims. Don't
forget the orphans, regard the rights of the neighbours. Make Quran the
practical programme for yourself. Respect (honour) praying because it
is the pillar of your religion. The Holy Imam Ali (a.s.) attained martyrdom
on the 21 st of the month of Ramadan and was burried in Najaf in Iraq.
His shrine became the tryst for the lovers of the truth and reality.
Congratulate to all Sh'ias on birthday anniversary of 9th Immam ,
Immam Jawad (peace be upon him
The Ninth Imam, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Taqi al Jawad (as
in Madina, 10th Rajab 195 Hijri (12.4.811 AD). Died in Baghdad Iraq
29th Zeeqad 220 Hijiri (27.11.835, aged 25 years, Period of Imamate 17
At the time of the death of Imam ‘Ali Al-Ridha’ (as) our 9th Imam was
only 9 years old. Some people from among the followers of Ahlul Bayt
and others, doubted Imam’s eligibility to become Imam at this young age.
Kulaini in his Kafi relates that the Mutawalli of the Holy Ka’aba
questioned Imam for several days before he was satisfied and accepted
him as the Imam of the Time.
It is an undeniable fact that the whole episode of the call for Imam
‘Ali Al-Ridha’ (as) to Tus, and his appointment as heir apparent to
Mamun was a game played for political convenience to get the sympathies
and support of the Persians to get his empire back from his step brother
Amin. Once this was achieved Mamun had the Imam poisoned to get him out
of his way.
But the fact is that Mamun being the most learned among all the
Abbasid rulers, was aware that the family of the Prophet had a special
type of knowledge which should be appreciated and be known to other
people as long as power remained in Mamun’s hands and his authority
remained supreme. This became apparent when he arrived in Baghdad
He began a policy of reconciliation with the Abbasid elders and also
with those who had inclinations towards the Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet.
He reappointed Hasan ibn Sahl as Governor of Iraq who had openly
supported the cause of Ahlul Bayt. Ibn Sahl being a scholarly person,
co-operated handsomely in the literary and cultural interest in the
For in spite of the fact that there was warfare and political turmoil
in all directions during the reign of Mamun, the period marks perhaps
the apex of the oriental renaissance. There was freedom of speech and
expression which resulted in open discussions on many issues which were
Most significant for the life of Imam Muhammad Taqi (as) was the fact
that Mamun’s favors towards the Ahlul Bayt did not cease because of
their scholarly and intellectual approach to Islam. Although after
arriving in Baghdad Mamun replaced the Hashemite Green color to the
black color of the Abbasids on flags and court dresses, he still
encouraged the intellectuals to engage in open discussions about the
concept of power and authority.
Indeed he took that action as political necessity for he did not want
to alienate his Persian friends and supporters. For not only prominent
friends of Ahlul Bayt were appointed to responsible positions, but
particular public favor was shown to the family of the deceased Imam
‘Ali Al-Ridha’ (as).
One of the Imam’s brothers was chosen to preside at the annual
pilgrimage in Makka, and it was but a short time until Mamun married his
own daughter Umme Fadhl to Imam Muhammad Taqi (as) According to Yakubi,
Mamun bestowed upon the bride groom one hundred thousand Dirhams, and
said, “Surely I would like to be a grandfather in the line of the
Apostle of God and of ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib (as).
It is a well-known fact that the Imam gave all this money to the poor
rather than spend it upon himself, which his wife Umme Fadhl, who was
the daughter of Mamun did not like at all and complained to her father
about this. But Mamun knew the ways of Ahlul Bayt, rejected her
complaints and told her to live like the wife of an Imam of the Ahlul
Bayt of the Prophet.
The story of Mamun’s first meeting with the young son of Imam ‘Ali
Al-Ridha’ (as) is interesting. One day, when the young Imam was only
nine years old, the caliph Mamun went out hunting. The Imam was standing
silently by the road side where some children were playing. The caliphs
entourage came that way. Seeing the soldiers of the caliph all the
children ran away, but the young Imam remained standing at his place.
Noting this, Mamun stopped his carriage and asked, “Young man, why did you not run away like the other children?”
The Imam replied calmly, “ Neither had I committed a crime, nor was I
blocking the way. Why should I have run away or be afraid? And I also
know that you will not cause any unnecessary trouble when your way is
Mamun was surprised with this mature reply and asked, “ What is your name?”
“Muhammad,” came the reply. Whose son are you? asked Mamun. "Son of ‘Ali ibn Musa (as) ."
Mamun rode on. During his hunt the hawk returned to him with a fish
in its beak. Mamun was surprised. He returned back toward the city. Once
again, he found children playing on the same spot, who ran away seeing
the caliph’s soldiers, except this young man who said he was Muhammad
son of ‘Ali ibn Musa (as) who remained where he was.
Mamun hid the fish in his palm, stopped his carriage near the Imam
and said, “Tell me, what is there in my fist?” The Imam replied, “God
created clouds between earth and sky. The hawks of kings sometimes catch
fish from there and bring it to the Kings. They hide it in their fist
and ask a member of the Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet, “Tell me what is
there in my fist.”
Mamun said, “ Truly, you are the worthy son of Imam ‘Ali Al-Ridha’
(as) (Bihar-al Anwar ,Majlisi). Mamun took the young Imam with him, and
let him live in a nearby house next to the Royal Palace.
It was during this stay of the 9th Imam nearby that Mamun had the
chance of seeing him closely and gaining an insight into the
intellectual abilities of this pious household.
Mamun convened many conferences during this period in which many
intellectuals and scholars assembled in order to listen and learn from
the Young Imam. Mamun told the Abbasid hierarchy that Imam ‘Ali
Al-Ridha’’s son was no doubt a boy of tender age, but he had inherited
his father’s virtues and qualities in full.
The learned scholars of the Islamic world could not compete with him.
If they doubted, they could put the young Imam to the test. This reply,
though totally said in jest, amounted to a challenge. Impulsed by
Mamun’s taunts they consented to judge the boy’s knowledge in a contest
with the most learned authority then, namely Yahya ibn Aaktham.
Mamun convened a magnificent gathering for this open contest. There
was anxiety to see this unequal match where a boy of Twelve was to
contest with the seasoned and renowned Chief Justice of the Abbasid
Empire. People crowded from every quarter. Historians have recorded that
apart from dignitaries and nobles, 900 seats were reserved for scholars
only. Mamun’s’ reign was described as the golden age of learning.
Experts of every trade and profession assembled in that great capital
from every corner of the Empire. Mamun had a carpet laid by the side of
his throne to seat Imam Muhammad Taqi (as) . In front of him was
accommodated the Chief Justice Yahya ibn Aktham. There was a pin drop
silence among the audience who waited to hear the arguments.
Silence was broken by Yahya who said, “ Will His Majesty allow me to
put some questions to Imam Muhammad Taqi (as) Mamun replied, “ You may
seek permission from the Imam himself.”
Yahya said to the Imam, “ Do you allow me to put some questions to
you?” “Yes, you may” replied the Imam. Yahya began by asking a question,
“What is atonement for a person who hunts a game while he is dressed in
the pilgrimage garb (‘Ahram).” The question itself indicated that Yahya
underestimated the scholarly attainments of his opponent.
Drunk with the pride of position and knowledge, he thought that the
young man might well be aware of simple daily routine problems of prayer
or fasting, but the possibility that he might be totally ignorant of
the statutes of pilgrimage or of the atonement of sins or mistakes
committed by a pilgrim never entertained his mind.
The sagacious young Imam was clever enough for the seasoned enquirer.
Instead of giving a general or a vague reply, he analyzed the different
aspects of the problem so dexterously that the audience immediately had
a true estimate of the Imam’s knowledge and of Yahya’s shallow
mindedness. Yahya too was puzzled and felt humiliated when the Imam
addressed him in the following manner:
“Your question is utterly vague and lacks definition. You should
first clarify whether the game killed was outside the sanctified area or
inside it; whether the hunter was aware of his sin or did so in
ignorance; did he kill the game purposely or by mistake, was the hunter a
slave or a free man, was he adult or minor, did he commit the sin for
the first time or had he done so before, was the hunted game a bird or
something else, was it a small animal or a big one, is the sinner sorry
for the misdeed or does he insist on it, did he kill it secretly at
night or openly during daylight, was he putting on the pilgrimage garb
for Hajj or for the Umra? Unless you clarify and define these aspects,
how can you have a definite answer?”
Whatever Yahya’s knowledge might have been, he was undoubtedly a
well-read man in Jurisprudence. While the Imam was unfolding all such
details of the problem, he had judged that he was no match for his
ingenious opponent. His face lost color and the audience realized the
situation well. His lips were sealed and he made no reply. Mamun fully
assessed his condition and thought it was useless to put any further
pressure on him.
He then requested the Imam to solve all the aspects of the question.
Yahya silent and puzzled, gazed at the Imam. But Mamun was bent on
carrying the matter to the end. He therefore requested the Imam to put
some questions to Yahya if he liked. The Imam then said to Yahya, “ May I
ask you a question? Disillusioned, Yahya who now had the true estimate
of the Imam’s capacity and had no misunderstanding about his own worth,
said in a humble tone,”
Your grace can ask, I shall reply if I can or I shall get it solved
by your own self.” Then the Imam put a question in reply to which Yahya
admitted his ignorance. The Imam explained it too. Mamun's joy knew no
bounds. What he had asserted came true.
Addressing the audience he said, “Did I not tell you that the people
of the Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet have been gifted by God with limitless
knowledge? None can cope with even the children of this elevated House.”
The excitement of the gathering was great. All unanimously exclaimed
that Mamun’s guess was correct and that the Imam Muhammad Taqi al Jawad
(as) was a matchless person. The Emperor then thought it advisable to
marry his daughter to Imam there and then.
The Imam himself recited the marriage Khutba. This address (Khutba)
became so famous that as a remembrance, it has been recited at weddings
everywhere throughout the Muslim world ever since. Over joyed at this
auspicious occasion Mamun displayed his full generosity, giving away
millions in charity to the poor.
When the people departed and a few of the courtiers remained
including the Chief Justice Yahya ibn Akhtham, Mamun asked the Imam to
tell them the law concerning the aspects into which the killing of the
animal was done by a Muhrim. (Meaning a pilgrim in Aahram)
“Yes,” replied the Imam. “ If he had killed the animal outside the
sacred ground and it was winged and large ,an atonement of sheep would
have been necessary for him. If he had struck it down in the sanctuary,
the penalty required of him would be doubled.
If he killed a young bird outside the sacred ground, then the
atonement of a lamb which had been weaned off milk would have been
required of him. If he had killed it in the sanctuary, then he would
have been required to sacrifice a lamb and the value of the young bird.
As for wild animals, if it was a wild ass, he would have been required
to sacrifice a cow.
If it was an ostrich, the sacrifice of a camel would be necessary. If
it had been a deer, then a sheep would have been necessary. If he had
killed any of those in the sanctuary, the penalty would have been
doubled. Imam continued to describe all avenues of penalties for the
Muhrim to the astonishment of the audience.” ( Al Irshad by Mufid) “You
have done well Abu Jaafar and God has adorned you,” said Mamun to him.
Imam Muhammed Taqi (as) occupied the highest position in human
virtues and moral attainments as this was the marked feature of the
Prophet’s family. It was customary for the Imam to meet everyone humbly,
fulfill the needs of the poor, maintain Islamic requisites of equality
and simplicity, help the poor secretly, treat even foes fairly, extend
hospitality, impart true Islamic knowledge to all and specially to the
scholars of religion and the like, marked his saintly life-in full
conformity with other members of this sacred series of infallible Imams.
Common people who could not appreciate such heights of moral
excellence, might have thought the new relationship, i.e. to become
son-in-law of the most influential monarch of his time, must influence
the pattern of life of the Imam and change his manners altogether.
Mamun too, might have thought on the same lines because spiritualism
which was the chief characteristic of this household was against the
practices of worldly rulers. It could be said that neither the Ummayads
nor the Abbasids had any personal grudge against the Prophet or his
family, the Ahlul Bayt, but they were at war with the moral standards
set by them.
They always tried to destroy the center of moral excellence and human
values which was shown as the polar star of ideal spiritual perfection,
overshadowing their royal glory.
In order to uphold their imperialistic and luxurious norms of life,
these monarchs wanted to do away with these godly saints who
demonstrated righteousness, compassion, faith, piety, fraternity and
justice as the main teachings of Islam. Yazid’s demand of obedience from
Imam Husayn (as) or Mamun’s appointment of Imam ‘Ali Al-Ridha’ (as) as
his heir-apparent were two different aspects of the same desire.
The procedures were different but the end purpose was the same. Imam
Husayn (as) did not bow to pay homage, so he was slain in the
battlefield. Imam ‘Ali Al-Ridha’ (as) did not serve the cause of Abbasid
imperialism, so he was silenced with poison.
Mamun, however, took it as a great opportunity to serve his objective
to patron the Imam who was only a young man. The political sagacity
suggested that it would be far easier to cast a young man into the
desired mold and thus it would be possible to demolish the center of the
Prophet’s teachings in Madina or elsewhere in the Islamic world which,
although working silently, was dangerous to the imperialistic designs of
the antithesis called Muslim Monarchy.
No doubt Imam ‘Ali Al-Ridha’ (as) did not conform to Mamun’s designs,
or to his desires, but this could not disappoint him. Imam Ridha’’s
mature way of thinking and simple way of life could not be changed.
But there was the hope that in all probability a man of a tender
young age, who was brought up in the luxurious atmosphere of a Royal
Palace would grow into an ambitious merrymaking prince, altogether
against his ancestral ways and views.
With the exception of a few enlightened persons, everybody would
think on the same lines. But the world stood aghast to see that the
young son-in-law of the most distinguished monarch of his time refused
to stay in the royal palace and lived instead in a small house, thus
maintaining the Islamic values of virtue and ethics of a simple and
It is usually seen that if the bride’s people are comparatively rich,
they wish that the groom might live with them, if not in the same
house, at least in the same town and in a house of the same standard.
The Will power of the Imam can be judged from the fact that he lived
in a separate dwelling and of a humble standard in Baghdad. After one
year when Mamun realized that the Imam was not pleased with staying in
Baghdad, he allowed the couple to go to live in Madina.
On his return to Madina the Imam maintained the same ancestral
unimposing behavior: no body guards, no pomp, no restrictions on people
meeting him, no visiting times, and no discriminations against anyone
meeting the Imam and learning from him.
He spent most of his day time sitting in the Mosque of the Prophet
where Muslims came to avail from his knowledge and preaching. The
narrators of Hadith and other students of theology came to enquire about
religious sciences and the Imam guided them by explaining every
complicated matter. All the world saw that Imam Ja’far Sadiq’s
successor, seated on the same mat, was guiding the people towards piety
which was the hall mark of Islam.
Imam Muhammad Taqi (as) allowed the same amount of freedom to his
wife Umme Fadhl and imposed the same restrictions on her as his
ancestors had done in the case of their wives. He did not care much
about the fact that Umme Fadhl was a princess.
Although she lived with him, he married another lady who was a
descendant of Ammare Yasir. God had intended to continue the line of
Imamate through her and she gave birth to Imam ‘Ali Naqi (as) the tenth
Imam Muhammad Taqi’s speech was very charming and effective. Once
during the Hajj season he addressed a gathering of the pilgrims and
stated commandments of the Divine Law of Sharia’a. The audience included
learned scholars who admitted that they had never heard such an
eloquent and comprehensive speech.
Many scholars came to learn the teachings of Ahlul Bayt. A collection
of brief and wise sayings is also left by the Imam, resembling the
wisdom of his ancestor Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) Some profound
discourses on theology and monotheism are also to his credit.
Mamun died in 218 Hijri (833 AD). As long as he lived no harm came to
the Imam. Mamun was succeeded by his brother Mu’taman, the second
heir-apparent after Imam ‘Ali Al-Ridha’ (as) . He came to be known as
Al-Mu’tasim billah Abbasi.
His niece Umme Fadhl now began to write to him complaining more than
she did during the reign of her father because Mamun always rejected her
complaints. But Mu’tasim was jealous of Imam ‘Ali Al-Ridha’ (as) from
the very beginning. He had also opposed the marriage of Umme Fadhl to
Imam Muhammad Taqi (as) .
Al- Mu’tasim now got a chance to settle his differences in this
matter. Imam Muhammad Taqi’s (as) fame as a great scholar and the
constant gathering of people around him as well as the fame of his world
renown noble character annoyed him.
The failure of the political tactics too, intensified his resentment.
All these factors irritated him into enmity. In the second year of his
reign he summoned the Imam from Madina to Baghdad, ordering his Governor
in Madina expressly about it. Imam was compelled to set out for Baghdad
leaving his son ‘Ali ibn Muhammad (Naqi) with his mother in Madina.
For one year after the Imams’ arrival in Baghdad, Mu’tasim did not do
anything. He was hoping that the Imam would conform to the Royal ways
of living and then this would be a source of infamy for the Ahlul Bayt.
But when he realized that the man was becoming more popular in Baghdad
with his scholarly discourses with the scholars there, he had to act to
stop this as all his ancestors did before him and use the silent weapon
of poison to eliminate that thorn in his heart.
The Imam died of poison on the 29th of Zeeqa’ad 220 Hijiri (24.11.835
AD). He was buried by the side of his grandfather Imam Musa ibn Ja’far.
It is because of the two Imam’s who were famous for their suppression
of anger that the place was called Kazemain, the two Kazims, the
It is a fact that all Sayyids known as Razavi are actually Taqawi.
Imam Ridha’ (as) had no son other than Imam Muhammad Taqi. Had he other
sons then the Imam Muhammad Taqi then their offspring should have been
called Razavi Sayyids. But as Imam Ridha’ (as) came to Iran and died in
Tus many descendants of his son Imam Muhammad Taqi were also called
One famous saying of the 9th Imam Muhammad Taqi al Jawad (as) follows:
Someone asked, “was the Messenger of God Muhammad ibn Abdullah an
illiterate.” Imam replied, “No, the Messenger of God knew 72 languages
in which he could read, write and speak.”
Someone asked the Imam about the Angels. What are they? The Imam
replied, “ They are the powers of God that regulate the Universe.”
Bagher (peace be upon him) is the fifth shiny star in the sky of
Imamate, the seventh precious stone of the scene of innocents and
elaborator of the Islamic sciences. He spent the whole of his valuable
life and all the moments of his living on guidance of the human beings.
Imam Bagher (p.b.u.h.) used much the grounds having been prepared by his
honorable father, Imam Sajad (p.b.u.h.) towards introduction of Shiite
school and fighting with the oppressors and by education of
distinguished students and by elaboration of pure religion of Islam and
the family of the prophet (p.b.u.h.), he took the greatest action
towards introduction of Shiite and the school of the family of prophet.
was present in Karbala and Ashoura of Imam Hossein when he was 40 years
old and accompanied his father in his travel to Kufeh and Sham and
witnessed all the events and was educated according to culture of
He was a manifestation of higher human values and
ethical attainments and all the moments of his bright life were full of
precious lessons for human beings.
Prophet (peace be upon him
and his progeny) named him many years before he was born and prescribed
to Jaber Ibn Abdullah Ansari: “Oh! Jaber! You will see one of my sons
who bears the same name as me and look likes me, he is some one who
breaks science just as a seed is broken out of which tree and fruits
grow, he elaborates and interprets science.”
To find out the
high scientific rank of Hazrat Imam Mohammad Bagher (p.b.u.h.), we seize
the opportunity to mention a part of his scientific discussion.
The great pious mentioned his questions as follows:
creature of God! tell me what is the time when it is neither night nor
the day?” Imam Bagher (p.b.u.h.) answered: “It is an hour from the time
of morning praying to sun rise.” The great pious asked: “so what is it,
if it is neither the night or the day?” Imam replied: “It is an hour of
paradise, when the patients are cured and those having problems are
relieved. God has considered this hour sweetly for those who think about
pandemonium and settlement of their conducts by God, and the dark
hearted ignore pleasure of this hour, passing it in sleep.”
great pious said: What you said, is quite correct, I have another
question, tell me, you say when those who should stay in paradise are
sent there, they do not excrete though they drink and eat all types of
foods, is it possible in the world? Imam Bagher (p.b.u.h.) prescribed:
“Yes it is true about a child in his mother’s thumb, what he eats is
part of his body and he does not excrete.” The great pious said” “You
are right. I ask it again or do you have a question?” Imam replied: ask
me whatever you wish. He asked: “you say there is a tree in the
paradise, named: Touba, having different fruits, whatever the
inhabitants of paradise eat, none of its fruits will be lessen, is it
also possible in the world?” Imam replied: “Yes, it is like a flame in
the world by which the other things are flamed while it will not be
Some say that the pious man was inverted to
Islam and Imam Bagher (p.b.u.h.) made him a Muslim in one meeting. Imam
Bagher (p.b.u.h.) states in a narration: “No one will love us but by
making good and by being pious.”
We seize the
opportunity to express some matters in proving the truthfulness of the
great Imams and necessity for following the innocent relatives of
Guidance to truth is the necessary point in infallibility.
one who guides the people to truth is more deserved for leading or one
who does not, except if he is guided himself. So, how do you feel, the
pagans? How can you have such a void judge for the idols? (sura: Younes,
In this sacred verse, God instructs to his prophet
the quality of reasoning for the pagans. How to prove to them, no
partner shall be considered to God to be worshipped, and how based on
the same need, they shall follow truth and honesty and shall take far
from all except truth.
This is the reasoning by wisdom; because
it is based on a general principle, the principal being necessity for
following truth continuously. Thus, reasoning by relying on necessity of
obedience and following an innocent Imam (p.b.u.h.) will make the best
reason and to apply the principle of reasoning, we shall state the base
in the introduction.
One of the man’s inborn and wisdom decrees
is necessity to follow truth. This decree is a general law, on which man
is always depended and if he deviates in his actions or dialogues and
if he intends something other than truth, due to his self needs or a
doubt or any mistake made by him, it is for what he thinks about truth
and it is because of his error or because the fact is concealed of him,
that he follows anything other than truth. So he will make the excuses
and will consider the fact that he made a mistake in knowing the truth,
as an excuse.
Thus, truth shall be enforceable without any term
and condition. And for the same principle another rule is considered,
which is, one who leads to truth, shall be followed. It is imperative to
follow him, because he is right and he shows the truth, so he shall be
followed and shall enjoy priority to others who do not lead to right
path or do not indicate the truth or those who indicate something/some
one other than the truth. Because following one who leads to truth is
the same as following the truth.
So, based on what has been mentioned, following the truth is an essential, inborn, and intellectual decree.
on the same principle, Holy Koran establishes its reasoning against the
pagans in the way that: firstly, it asks them: Oh prophet! Ask them: Is
among the partners you consider for God, anyone who might lead you to
truth? (sura: Younes, verse: 35) it is obvious that the pagans have no
answer in this field. Because the partners they consider for God are
either inanimate or idol or if the are living, they are angles, fauns,
pharaohs, masters whom they follow and it is clear that none of them can
lead anyone to truth, because they impose no loss, bring no profit,
have no life, will not die. So, when the pagans give no positive answer,
God orders the prophet to immediately reply: It is God Who leads to the
Truth. And has leaded the creature in the complementary goal to what he
needs and will provide to him, his needs.
As God orders: When
Pharaoh asked Moses and Haroon who was their God? They replied: Our God
is the One Who has bestowed to any creature in the world of His
creation, his own needs, then created him and then leaded him to
Himself. Sura: Taha, verse: 50
So, it is God Who leads man to
prosperity and to Paradise and absolute felicity by dispatching to them
the prophets and the divine books and decrees.
So, we will use
what has been mentioned to prove that Man shall follow a person who
leads to Truth, of course he is one who is leaded himself intrinsically,
not one who has been leaded by another man and he is the innocent Imam
who has not worshiped anyone but God and has made no sin. Such a person
has been guided to God without any need to any meddler. But, a person
who has committed a sin or has worshipped other than God, even though he
has been punished and has worshipped God and is fair now, but, he will
not deserve the rank of Imamate and might not be followed.
Thus, it is imperative to follow the innocent Imam and it is forbidden to follow others
Mother's Day is a modern celebration honoring one's own mother,
as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in
society. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world,
most commonly in the months of March or May. It complements similar celebrations honoring family members, such as Father's Day and Siblings Day.
The celebration of Mother's Day began in the United States
in the early 20th century; it is not related to the many celebrations
of mothers and motherhood that have occurred throughout the world over
thousands of years, such as the Greek cult to Cybele, the Roman festival of Hilaria, or the Christian Mothering Sunday celebration (originally a celebration of the mother church, not motherhood). Despite this, in some countries Mother's Day has become synonymous with these older traditions
Fatima Zahra is the daughter of Prophet Mohammad highly revered among
the Shiite Muslims. It is known among both Shiite and Sunni Muslims that
Prophet had many times said “Fatima is above all women of the world
from eh first to the last ones.”
Arabic the word ‘fatima’ means separated. She is named Fatima because
her followers are separated from the Hell because of her character.
Zahra means ‘shining, bright, and brilliant’. Shiites’ 6th Imam,
Imam Sadiq (PBUH), said: "When our mother Fatima Zahra prayed, she
shined for the heavens as the stars shine for people on earth".
Lady Fatima Zahra was born on 20th of Jamadi al-Thani, five years after the Prophet received revelations from Gabriel the Angel in Mecca.
of the Shiites and some of the Sunni commentators such as Imam Fakhr
al-Razi believe that the first verse of chapter Kawthar of Quran refers
to Fatimah (PBUH). He has identified her as Kawthar – unending source of
blessing – and the reason for maintenance and spread of the Prophet's
progeny. The last verse of 108th chapter of the Quran, al-Kawthar, proves this fact, as God tells the Prophet (PBUH) “Your enemy will be without progeny.”
Fatima Zahra owned elegant dignities and virtues, there are many
lessons left to learn from her one of the sayings of hers is,
“If someone sends his pure prayer up to Allah, Allah will send down best welfare to him.”
Iranians her birth anniversary is designated as Mother’s Day to uphold
the place and character of women on the greatest of women’s birth
Sizdah Bedar is the day Tir (The Blessed day) of the month Farvardin
from ancient Persian (Iranian) calendar, which is the first day of
agricultural activity of Ancient Persians. Be-dar in Persian means,
going out. In this day Iranians go to have fun with their families all
the day long, in some sub cultures they have 14 Be-Kaar, which means 14
to work. During recent years, Jewish-Islamic people have related 13
Be-dar as the unlucky 13, which isn't related to ancient Persian
culture, one of the reasons for such interpretation is that in some
It is a tradition amongst
the Iranian people to enjoy the fresh spring air of this day before
ending the annual fortnightly holidays of the New Year, and to begin the
work and education schedule.The tradition of leaving the house on the
thirteenth day of Farvardin is widespread throughout Iran. It is a day
that is spent outside with joy, laughter and friendly gettogether. This
is the last phase of the celebrations of the New Year. It is the custom
of many Iranians to pass as many hours as possible outdoors. People
leave their homes to go to the parks or mountains for a picnic. All
kinds of food and delicacies are prepared with tea, sherbet, fruits,
bread, cheese, fresh herbs, noodle soup called ‘ash-e reshteh’ and
herbed rice with lamb called baqalipolou and barreh are favorites. The
occasion is a communal one and all close relatives and friends will
participate. Iranian families all eat alfresco, preferably near water
springs and lush greener spots on this day. Sizdah-Bedar is the last
day of the New Year holidays. On the following day, routine life
resumes; schools and offices open after almost a fortnight and life
heads back to normalcy. The occasion has no religious significance and
is celebrated by all. 13 Farvardin is the same as April 1 (April Fools' Day).Read below
April Fools' Day (sometimes called April Fool's Day or All Fools' Day) is celebrated every year on the first day of April as a day when people play practical jokes and hoaxes
on each other. The jokes and their victims are known as "April fools".
Hoax stories may be reported by the press and other media on this day
and explained on subsequent days
Nature Day in other Countries
together. This is the last phase of the celebrations of
the New Year. It is the custom of many Iranians to pass as many hours as
possible outdoors. People leave their homes to go to the parks or
mountains for a picnic. All kinds of food and delicacies are prepared
with tea, sherbet, fruits, bread, cheese, fresh herbs, noodle soup
called ‘ash-e reshteh’ and herbed rice with lamb called baqalipolou and
barreh are favorites. The occasion is a communal one and all close
relatives and friends will participate. Iranian families all eat
alfresco, preferably near water springs and lush greener spots on this
day. Sizdah-Bedar is the last day of the New Year holidays. On the
following day, routine life resumes; schools and offices open after
almost a fortnight and life heads back to normalcy. The occasion has no
religious significance and is celebrated by all.
In addition to Iran, SizdahBedar is also among the
festivals celebrated in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, India, and
many other parts of the world. Games using horse are often chosen
since this animal also represents rain. Adults and older people may play
the traditional game of backgammon. During the picnic day of
SizdahBedar, some people also follow the oldest prank-tradition in the
world and play jokes on each other. This has possibly led many men and
women to consider that the origin of the April Fools’ Day goes back to
the Iranian tradition of SizdahBedar.
United Nations’ (UN) International Day of Nowruz celebrates the start
of the Persian spring festival March 21 ever year. It occurs on or
around the time of the March equinox: Below is explained.
What do people do?
About 300 million people worldwide celebrate Nowruz, with traditions
and rituals particularly strong in the Balkans, the Black Sea and
Caspian Sea regions, the Caucasus, Central and South Asia, and the
Middle East. Events may include folk dance performances, special
concerts, and tree planting ceremonies.
International Nowruz Day is a global observance. The Nowruz festival is a public holiday in some countries, such as Iran.
Nowruz is an ancestral festivity marking the first day of spring and
the renewal of nature. It was proclaimed as an official UN observance
because it promotes peace and solidarity, particularly in families. The
day also focuses reconciliation and neighborliness, contributing to
cultural diversity and friendship among peoples and different
the equinox, night and day are nearly exactly the same length – 12
hours – all over the world. This is the reason it's called an “equinox”,
derived from Latin, meaning "equal night". However, in reality equinoxes don't have exactly 12 hours of daylight
What happens on the equinox?
Earth's axis is always tilted at an angle of about 23.5° in relation to
the ecliptic, the imaginary plane created by the Earth's path around
the Sun. On any other day of the year, the Earth's axis tilts a little
away from or towards the Sun. But on the two equinoxes, the tilt of the
Earth's is neither away from nor towards the Sun. In fact, it is
perpendicular to the Sun's rays, like the illustration shows.
Celebrating new beginnings
March equinox has long been celebrated as a time of rebirth in the
Northern Hemisphere. Many cultures celebrate spring festivals and holidays around the March equinox, like Easter and Passover.
The snake of sunlight
of the most famous ancient Spring equinox celebrations was the Mayan
sacrificial ritual by the main pyramid at Chichen Itza, Mexico.
main pyramid – also known as El Castillo – has four staircases running
from the top to the bottom of the pyramid's faces, notorious for the
bloody human sacrifices that used to take place here.
staircases are built at a carefully calculated angle which makes it look
like an enormous snake of sunlight slithers down the stairs on the day
of the equinox.
Scientific Accuracy of Holy Qur'an Amazes University Professor
History is a witness to persecutions of scientists by the medieval Church and the consequent branding of all religions to be anti-science. This is however not the case with Islam. For Islam is that religion, which emphasizes on the need to acquire knowledge form the 'Cradle to the grave'. The Prophet of Islam considered the ink of a scholar more precious than the blood of a martyr. He did not discriminate between men and women in this regard and said, "Acquisition of knowledge is compulsory for every believing man and every believing woman. Although the number of literate people in the whole of Arabia at the dawn of Islam could be counted on the fingers of one's hands, the succeeding decades witnessed an enormous upsurge in scientific development and learning. So much so that the Muslim intellectuals and scientists surpassed even the ancient Romans and Greeks. Modern science owes everything to the knowledge that they obtained from the Muslims .
I am the city of KnowledgeMoreover, Jabir bin Hayyan the father of Chemistry as he is known, was from among one of the students of Imam Sadiq (a.s.), the 5th generation of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.).
But how is it possible for a person brought up in a nomad environment of the 7th century Arabia, to mention things unheard of at that time. Some understood by the world only when science entered its infancy. It was not for nothing that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said: "I am the city of Knowledge."
His message was supposed to last till the day of the judgement. His teachings had to stand the test of time and hence in addition to the above words: "I am the city of Knowledge."
He said, "And Ali is its gate."
So, this discussion is followed by an extract from the saying of lmam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) the great-grandson of Ali ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). The saying is famous as Hadith-e-Mufazzal and the part that we have quoted is regarding the development of the human embryo. When we read the words of Imam, we find them in absolute consonance with the Qur'an. Moreover they are in the language of a common man easily understood by all.
QuranDr. Keith Moore of the University of Toronto was amazed to find that many modern discoveries in the field of embryology must have been known to the author of the Qur'an, for these facts are either hinted at or stated explicitly in the Qur'an. This is particularly significant because the Qur'an claims to be the verbatim word of God. How could these facts have been known to any human being living in the 7th century? The presence of these in the Qur'an is proof enough that the Qur'an did not come from the mind of any human but must have been revealed from God whose knowledge is perfect and who therefore, knew what scientists will discover in the 20th century.
Dr. Moore is not the only scientist to have discussed the Qur'anic verses we will look at in this article. But the fact that he is not a Muslim puts what he has to say in a different light. No one can accuse him of inventing things to defend Islam. His findings will have to be taken seriously by any seeker of truth. In what follows we shall draw from his article entitled "Highlights of Human Embryology in the Koran and the Hadith" which was presented at the Seventh Saudi Medical Meeting at King Faisal University on May 3-6, 1982. At the time, Dr. Moore was Professor of Anatomy and Chairman of the Department, Faculty of Medicine, at the University of Toronto.
In tracing the history of ideas in the field of embryology, Dr. Moore observed that the absence of knowledge in this field and the "dominating influence of superstition resulted in a non-scientific approach to human development." He noted, for instance, that while Aristotle made some contributions to the study of embryology, he also promoted "the incorrect idea that the human embryo developed from a formless mass that resulted from the union of semen with menstrual blood."
Knowledge in this field could not progress significantly until the microscope was discovered in the 17th century. "After it was possible to examine cells under the microscope, it was reasoned in the 18th century that development resulted from growth and differentiation of embryonic cells."
In view of the above, after Dr. Moore had the opportunity to study certain statements in the Qur'an and statements of the Prophet (on whom be peace) in the Hadith literature, he remarked, "I was amazed at the scientific accuracy of these statements which were made in the 7th century A.D."
He created you (all) from a single person: then created, of like nature, his mate; and he sent down for you eight head of cattle in pairs: He makes you, in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness. Holy Qur'an (39:6)
Referring to above verse in the Quran, Dr. Moore says: "This verse from the Koran states that God makes you in the wombs of your mothers in stages, one after another, within three veils of darkness." Then he explains his amazement: "The realization that the embryo develops in stages in the uterus was not discussed or illustrated until the 15th century A.D.
"The staging of human embryos was not proposed until the 1940's, and the stages used nowadays were not adopted worldwide until a few years ago."
It is reasonable to interpret the three veils of darkness mentioned in the Koran as:
the mother's abdominal wall; the wall of the uterus; and the amniochorionic membrane composed of the fused amnion and chorion.
These three anatomical layers protect the embryo from external injury."
And certainly We created man of an extract of clay, Then We made him a small seed in a firm resting-place, Then We made the seed a clot, then We made the clot a lump of flesh, then We made (in) the lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, then We caused it to grow into another creation, so blessed be Allah, the best of the creators. Then after that you will most surely die. Then surely on the day of resurrection you shall be raised. Holy Qur'an (23:12-16)
Referring to the above verses in the Qur'an, Dr. Keith Moore says:
"This verse from the Koran states that God made you from a drop and then changed the drop into a leech-like structure which soon changed into a chewed like substance that then took the shape of bone and was clothed with flesh."
To illustrate his point about the accuracy of the Qur'an, Dr. Moore lined up a picture of a leech and a picture of a human embryo at 24 days old to show the striking similarity between the two. Similarly, he compared the human embryo at 28 days with a plasticine model of the embryo with teeth marks deliberately impressed on it and found the two to be quite Similar.
Then did he become a leech-like clot; then did (Allah) make and fashion (him) in due proportion. Holy Qur'an (75:38)
And made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid despised: Holy Qur'an (32:8)
Dr. Moore then turns his attention to the mention in the Qur'an (75:38) that humans are created from a nutfa, a tiny drop of fluid, which gushed forth, and that God made the progeny of men from "an extraction of despised fluid (32:8)." He also refers to a hadith, which says: "Not from all secretions is the child made." Then he comments:
"It is well established that only a few hundred of the several million sperms in the semen are able to pass through the uterus and surround the ovum in the uterine tube."
Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: So We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight. Holy Qur'an (76:2)
EmbryoSurah (76:2) says that a human being is created from a mixed drop. Dr. Moore comments: "The mixed drop mentioned in the Koran could refer to the mixture of small quantity of sperms with the oocyte and its associated follicular fluid. There are the other references in the Koran to the origin of man from a small quantity of 'mingled fluids', undoubtedly the male and female sexual secretions. As we know a secondary oocyte is expelled from the ovary during a process known as ovulation. The oocyte and the follicular fluid pass into the uterine tube, where, if coitus has occurred, they are mixed with several hundred sperms. The resulting mixture (drop) composed of the ovum and the penetrating sperm, becomes the zygote or primordium of the embryo."
Whereas the Qur'an had already mentioned this truth in the 7th century, Dr. Moore noted that one thousand years later, as late as the 17th century, scientists held on to two misconceptions. Some believed that a tiny human being is contained in the sperm; others believed that it was contained in the ovum, and in either case that the tiny human just simply grew larger. The scientist proved both of these ideas wrong. Spallanzani in the 18th century when he "showed experimentally that both male and female sex products were necessary for the initiation of development."
From a sperm-drop: He hath created him, and then mouldeth him in due proportions; Holy Qur'an (80:19)
Turning to a new subject, Dr. Moore refers to Surah (80:19) and comments: "This verse from the Koran states that from this drop He (God) created him and soon planned his future characteristics and features." Then he explained his amazement:
"The idea that development results from a genetic plan contained in the chromosomes of the zygote was not discovered until the end of 19th century. The verse from the Koran clearly implies that the nutfa contains the plan or blueprint for the future characteristics and features of the developing human being."
That He did create in pairs, male and female, From a seed when lodged (in its place); Holy Qur'an (53:45-46)
Then he mentions Surah (53:45-46) and says: "This verse states that either a male or a female will be created from the nutfa and that the sex of the embryo is determined at the beginning." This piece of information in the Qur'an is way ahead of its time. "The realization that sex was determined at fertilization was established about 60 years ago when the sex chromosomes were discovered," he says.
Your wives are a tilth for you, so go into your tilth when you like, and do good beforehand for yourselves, and be careful (of your duty) to Allah, and know that you will meet Him, and give good news to the believers. Holy Qur'an (2:223)
There is more to marvel at. Dr. Moore explains that the blastocyst (the early embryo) implants in the uterus about 10 days after fertilization. Then he compares this knowledge with what he finds in the Qur'an. "An understanding of the implantation process of the human blastocyst is also implied in the Koran." Here Dr. Moore refers to Surah (2:223) where the act of sex is compared with cultivation. He says: "A tilth refers to the cultivation of land and the comparison of implantation of the blastocyst to the planting of a seed is a very appropriate one. Just as soil covers the seed, the uterine epithelium covers the implanted blastocyst. The blastocyst soon develops chrionic villi for acquiring nourishment from the maternal blood. Similarly the embryo formed from the seed develops roots for acquiring nourishment from the soil."
And certainly We created man of an extract of clay, Then We made him a small seed in a firm resting-place, Then We made the seed a clot, then We made the clot a lump of flesh, then We made (in) the lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, then We caused it to grow into another creation, so blessed be Allah, the best of the creators. Then after that you will most surely die. Then surely on the day of resurrection you shall be raised. Holy Qur'an (23:12-16)
Looking again at Surah (23:12-16), Dr. Moore points out that the article thumma (meaning furthermore) "indicates that there is a lag or gap between the nutfa stage and the leech like stage." How does that compare with modern scientific knowledge? Remarkably! Says Dr. Moore: "It is well established that there is a lag or delay in the development of the embryo during the implantation...The agreement between the lag or gap in the development mentioned in the Koran and the slow rate of change occurring during the second and third weeks is amazing. These details of human development were not described until about 40 years ago."
O mankind! if ye have a doubt about the Resurrection, (consider) that We created you out of dust, then out of sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then out of a morsel of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed, in order that We may manifest (our power) to you; and We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term, then do We bring you out as babes, then (foster you) that ye may reach your age of full strength; Holy Qur'an (22:5)
Moving to Surah (22:5) Dr. Moore says: "this verse states that you are created from a chewed lump which is both differentiated and undifferentiated." Then he says: "It is well established that the brain and the heart are only partially differentiated at the end of the fourth week when the embryo resembles a chewed substance."
Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (foetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create! Holy Qur'an (23:14)
The sequence of stages mentioned in Surah (23:14) is strikingly accurate. "This verse states that out of the chewed lump, bones are made which are clothed with muscles." Dr. Moore relates the conclusion of modern science: "After the chewed-like appearance, bones develop which are soon clothed with muscles."
A hadith too is found to be remarkably accurate. The hadith states that God sends an angel to the developing child "to create its hearing, vision, skin, flesh and bones." "The ears and the eyes begin to form in the fourth week", says Dr. Moore, "and are clearly visible at six weeks, 42 days after the zygote or nutfa forms. Noting that in the hadith the angel asks God whether the child is male or female, Dr. Moore points out that the sex of the child is not distinguishable at this stage. Males and females look alike at this stage and become clearly distinguishable only in the 12th week. This he has clearly documented with the help of a diagram culled from his book the Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, 3rd edn., 1982.
Finally, Dr. Moore concludes: "The agreement I have found between statements in the Koran and sayings in the Hadith may help to close the gap between science and religion which has existed for so many years."
All of this go to show that the Qur'an could not have been the product of the mind of Muhammad (on whom be peace) or any other human being living in the 7th century. How could he access information that will not be discovered until the 18th-2Oth century? How could he or anyone else study the human embryo in its very early stages without using a microscope? Impossible. But then the Qur'an must be from God as it claims. The Qur'an says that you and every human being should consider this book with care. Had it been from anyone other than God, you would have found much discrepancy in it.
Do they not consider the Qur'an (with care)? Had it been from other Than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy. Holy Qur'an (4:82)
CONCLUSION Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) on the development of a Human being.
"The embryo in the world is adjusted, though it is confined within three distinct kinds of coverings- the outer wall, the womb and the placenta. This is a time when the embryo can neither manage its nutrition nor ward off any harm from itself. The menstrual flow is diverted to serve him as a nutriment, just as water carries nutriments to the plants, so this process goes on till such time as its constitution is perfected, its skin over its body gets tough enough to stand the atmosphere and its eyes get the capacity to stand light. When all this gets accomplished, its mother gets labor pangs, which shake her severely, culminating in the birth of the infant. With the birth of the infant, the menstrual flow... is diverted to its mother's breasts. Its taste is altered, so is its color... it becomes a nutriment of the first order...till such time as his body remains delicate, his organs and bowels soft and weak. As he begins to move about and requires tougher nutriment to build up a stronger constitution, his molars appear to masticate food to facilitate digestion. He carries on such nutriment till puberty... Who then created man from nothingness and Who becomes the architect of his worth? Who is ever vigilant to supply his needs from time to time..."
Finally, we may note that the Qur'an is not a Science textbook. Its purpose is not to teach us science, but to teach us guidance - the guidance that will lead us to everlasting life in Paradise, which God has prepared for those who believe in Him and do right. You can be one of those. The evidence is before you, and the decision is yours
Shafaqna - Zaynab, is an arab female name that means the tree that
looks good and smells good. The book "taj al-'aroos" says that Zaynab is
a composed name that comes from "Zayn (beauty/adornment)" and "Ab
Zaynab daughter of Imam Ali (peace be upon both of them) was the
spokesperson and the eloquent sermonizer of the tragic bloody event of
At-Taf and the journey of captivity after it. She (peace be upon her)
played the role of media, speaking about the reckless and evil ruling of
Bani Umayyah, their crimes and vices, and their killing of the pure
household of the Holy Prophet (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and
his holy Household) wherever they found them. So she (peace be upon
her) stood to expose their evil acts and reveal their intentions, and
without any fear, she (peace be upon her) stood up to deliver her speech
as captive to the crowds of Kufa people, she scolded and reprimanded
them for repealing and non fulfilling their promises to Aba Abdillah
Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) saying: "O people of Kufah! O you
deceivers! O you who break your pledges and retreat back! You traitors!
May the cries never end and the tears never diminish. You are like the
woman who painstakingly and with great labour twines a strong rope, and
then herself unwinds it, thereby wasting her effort and energy. Your
false pledges contain no element of truth and sincerity. Your tactic has
become flattering the maids and nodding your heads in agreement to the
enemies...Woe be upon you! Do you know which part of the Messenger of
Allah you have cut? And which vow you have broken? And whose blood you
have shed? And which respected family you have brought to the public (as
captives)? And whose sanctity you have violated? You have done that,
which could tear down the skies, open the earth, and make the mountains
vanish. As far as the earth goes and as deep as the skies go, your
obvious deed has no like, no similarity and no decency. Indeed you have
done the ugliest, the most grievous and gruesome deed..."
She (peace be upon her) confronted the tyrants of her time Ubaydullah
Ibnu Zyad in Kufa, and Yazeed Ibnu Mu'awiyah in Syria, she was a
heroine by her words, patience, courage and wisdom. Like described her
the famous Egyptian author "Bint Shati'" in her known book "The heroine
The bravery of Lady Zaynab (peace be upon her) was not the result of
Karbala event, but it is a self-rooted quality in her personality, as
she (peace be upon her) inherited it from her parents and ancestors, who
all were the example of pride, steadfastness and bravery in the
battlefields. She (peace be upon her) is a sprig of the Mohammadian
tree, her father (peace be upon him) was the most brave and her mother
(peace be upon her) stood up confident and eloquent while her heart was
full of sorrows after the death of her father (prayers and Allah's peace
be upon him and his holy Household).
What are the titles and epithets of Lady Zaynab (peace be upon her)?
Lady Zaynab (peace be upon her) is one of the eternal fruits of the
prophetic tree which root is firmly fixed and which branch is in the
sky. The purity of Lady Fatima, the infallibility of Imam Ali, the
redemption of Imam Al-Hussayn and above all the fragrance of the Holy
Prophet (peace be upon them all) were mixed to produce this unique
personality of Lady Zaynab (peace be upon her), called "The mother of
It was five years after the Muslims had accompanied the Prophet
(prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) and his
family in the migration (hijrah) to Medina, when the Holy Prophet's
daughter, Lady Fatima (peace be upon her), gave birth to a little girl.
When her father, Imam Ali (peace be upon him), saw his daughter for the
first time Imam Hussayn (peace be upon him), who was then almost three
years old, was with him.
The boy exclaimed in delight, "O father, Allah has given me a
sister." At those words Imam Ali (peace be upon him) began to weep, and
when Hussayn (peace be upon him) asked why he was crying so, his father
answered that he would soon come to know. Fatima and Ali (peace be upon
them both) did not name their child until a few days after her birth,
for they awaited the Prophet's return from a journey so that he could
propose the name.
When finally the baby girl was brought before him he held her in his
lap and kissed her. The Angel Jibra'il came to him and conveyed the name
that was to be hers, and then he began to weep.
The Prophet (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy
Household) asked why Jibra'il wept and he answered, "O Prophet of Allah,
from early on in life this girl will remain entangled in tribulations
and trials in this world.- First she will weep over your separation
(from this world); thereafter she will bemoan the loss of her mother,
then her father, and then her brother Hassan. After all this she will be
confronted with the trials of the land of Karbala and the tribulations
of that lonely desert, as a result of which her hair will turn grey and
her back will be bent."
When the members of the family heard this prophecy they all broke
down in tears. Imam Hussayn (peace be upon him) now understood why
earlier his father had also wept. Then the Prophet (prayers and Allah's
(prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) named her
Zaynab (peace be upon her).
The holy Prophet (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him) has said:
"He who cries on the calamities of this girl is like he who cries on her
brothers Hassan and Hussayn."
One of her names is "Umm Kulthum" and also "Umm Al-Hussayn," She was
also called Zaynab Al-Kubra (the elder) to differentiate her from her
During the days of persecutions the narrators used to call the
Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) "Abu Zaynab" (Father of
Zaynab) like quoted by Ibnu Abi Al-Hadid in its explanation of the Peak
of Eloquence, stating they used to call Imam Ali (peace be upon him) Abu
Zaynab because this nickname was not known to his enemies.
Lady Zaynab (peace be upon her) has many epithets, which all can't
give her the adequate praise, and all words are not able to describe her
Her most important epithets are:
"The ascetic captive, the virtuous devout worshipper, the full
rational, the forbearing weeper, the informed, the only one documenting,
the eloquent stranger, the courageous captive, the oppressed, Haydar's
daughter, the Daughter of Talibiyyin, the deputy of Az-Zahra, Karbala
heroine, the Kaaba of calamities, the Kaaba of sorrows, the orphans'
foster, Waliyyatu Allahi Al-'udhma, Assiddeeqatu Al-Soghra, the one
ordering the good, Aqeela Bani Hashem, the loved of Al-Mustafa, the
apple of the eye of Al-Murtada, The most pure in the love, the teacher
without being taught, the one who understands without explanation, the
sister of Al-Hassan Al-Mujtaba, the one which knowledge and certainty
"yaqeen" is complete, the owner of the special deputy-ship, the
satisfied of the destiny, the partner of Al-Hussayn the master of
Lady Fatimah was the only daughter of the Holy Prophet (peace be
upon him and his family) and Lady Khadijah. The circumstances of her
birth are described by Lady Khadijah as follows: At the time of the
birth of Lady Fatimah (peace be upon her), I sent for my neighboring
Qurayshite women to assist me. They flatly refused, saying that I had
betrayed them by supporting Muhammad. I was perturbed for a while, when,
to my great surprise, I sighted four strange tall women with halos
around them, approaching me.
Finding me dismayed, one of them addressed me thus, "O Khadijah! I am
Sarah, the mother of Ishaq, and the other three are, Mary the mother of
Christ, Asiyah the daughter of Muzahim, and Umm Kulthum, the sister of
Moses. We have all been commanded by God to put our nursing knowledge at
Lady Fatimah (peace be upon her) inherited the genius and wisdom, the
determination and will-power, the piety and sanctity, the generosity
and benevolence, the devotion and worship of Allah, the self-sacrifice
and hospitality, the forbearance and patience, and the knowledge and
nobility of disposition of her illustrious father, both in words and
deeds. "I often witnessed my mother," says Imam Husayn, "absorbed in
prayer from dusk to dawn." Her generosity and compassion for the poor
was such that no destitute or beggar ever returned from her door
The death of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)
affected her very much and she was very sad and grief-stricken and wept
her heart out crying all the time. She was confronted, after the demise
of her father, with the deprivement of the rightful claim of leadership
of her husband Imam Ali, and the usurpation of her inheritance, the
Fadak. Throughout her life, she never spoke to those who had oppressed
her and deprived her of her rightful claims. She requested that her
oppressors should be kept away even from attending her funeral.
Having been oppressed and stricken with grief, which crossed all
limits of forbearance and endurance, she expressed her sorrows in an
elegy composed by herself to mourn her father the Holy Prophet (peace be
upon him and his family). A couplet of the elegy, with particular
reference to her woeful plight, she expressed thus: O my father! After
your death I was subjected to such tortures and tyranny that if they had
been inflicted on the 'Day', it would have turned into 'Night'.
Lady Fatimah (peace be upon her) did not survive more than
seventy-five days after the demise of her father. She breathed her last
on the 14th Jumdi'1-ula 11 AH. Before her demise she bequeathed the
following as her will to Imam 'Ali (peace be upon him):
O Ali, you will personally perform my funeral rites.
Those who have displeased me should not be allowed to attend my funeral.
My corpse should be carried to the graveyard at night.
Thus Imam 'Ali, in compliance with her will, performed all the
funeral rites and accompanied exclusively by her relatives and sons
carried her at night during where she was laid to rest and her wishes
In the Islamic religion, there are two main sects: Sunni and Shi'ite.
Sunni Islam is the largest sect, although in some countries it is a
minority. Sunnis have their historical roots in the majority group who
followed Abu Bakr, an effective leader, as
successor of Muhammad, instead of his cousin and son-in-law Ali.
The Sunnis are so named because they believe themselves to follow the sunnah
or "custom" of the Prophet. Shi'ites are those Muslims who followed
Ali, the closest relative of Muhammad, as Muhammad's successor.
Meaning of name
"well-trodden path" or "tradition"
"party" or "partisans" of Ali
See Religion Statistics by Adherents and Religion Statistics by Growth Rate
Percentage of total Muslims
most Muslim countries
Iran, Iraq, Yemen
none, but four major schools of Muslim law are recognized
Ithna 'Ashariyah (Twelvers; the largest), Isma'iliyah and Zaydiyah
c. 632 CE; theology developed especially in 10th cent.
c. 632-650 CE; killing of Ali's son Husayn in 680 CE is major event
Published photos of alleged ISIL terror master Abu Bakr
The world has a new poster boy in al-Baghdadi. Some naive
Muslims will be taken in by his brandishing a kalishnakov
instead of the sword but it is important to look deeper.
Emotional outbursts are no substitute for clear analysis and
ISIL terrorists mass murdering
Iraqi civilians after capturing a town.
America’s newest poster boy Abu Bakr
al-Baghdadi may not be as photogenic as the late Osama bin
Laden but what he lacks in looks, he more than makes up in
ruthlessness, guile and cruelty. Born Ibrahim Ali al-Badri
al-Samarrai in 1971 in Samarrah (Iraq)—hence his last name
al-Samarrai—he is also known by his nom de guerre, Abu Du‘a
(the “Father of Du‘a”). This is common practice in the
Al-Baghdadi burst on the global scene with
spectacular speed last month when his rebels captured Mosul
in central Iraq. Despite their ruthlessness, the speed with
which Baghdadi’s thugs took over Iraq’s second largest city,
surprised even his staunchest admirers. The fall of Mosul
was followed by the capture of Tikrit, home town of the
former Iraqi dictator Saddam Husain where he is buried
following his hanging in December 2006 (It has been reported
that the judge, Raouf Abdul Rahman who sentenced Saddam to
death was captured by ISIS rebels on June 16 and executed).
thug on the block heads the terror group that
carries the inappropriate name, the Islamic State of
Iraq and the Levant (or al-Sham), hence it is called
either ISIL or ISIS depending on which last name is
used. There is nothing Islamic about the group or
its leader; it is a bunch of bloodthirsty mass
murderers that have no regard for human life
The latest thug on the block heads the
terror group that carries the inappropriate name, the
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (or al-Sham), hence it
is called either ISIL or ISIS depending on which last name
is used. There is nothing Islamic about the group or its
leader; it is a bunch of bloodthirsty mass murderers that
have no regard for human life whatsoever. The group has
indulged in gruesome killings of civilians as well as
members of other groups that may be a little less violent
than this bunch of AK-47 clutching hoodlums.
In its latest rampage through Mosul, the
ISIS admitted to having shot and killed more than 1700
people, all of them after they had surrendered to the
marauders. Killing prisoners of war and civilians is
forbidden in Islam. In many instances, people had their
hands tied behind the back and shot in the head. Such
conduct is worse than primitive savagery that Islam
confronted and defeated during the time of the noble
Messenger (saws). What the ISIS barbarians are doing would
make the primitive savages of Arabia, referred to as jahils
(ignorant) in the noble Qur’an, look benign by comparison.
The question, however, is: Who is Abu Bakr
al-Baghdadi and how has he been successful when other
figures have fallen by the way side, especially in Syria
where his group has had its most ruthless phase? While the
Western corporate media claims that Washington is “worried”
about the rise of another radical “Sunni” leader, facts seem
to point in a different direction. How deeply is the US
involved in the rise of the ISIS and promotion of
al-Baghdadi are not rhetorical questions or conspiracy
theories. Rand Paul, the Republican Senator from Kentucky
told NBC’s Meet the Press program on June 22 that Washington
was financing the ISIS as well as other terrorist groups
linked with it. The White House has not refuted Paul’s
thing is that al-Baghdadi’s murderous operations in
Syria had the full backing of the US and its Western
and Arabian allies. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the UAE and
Turkey have been deeply involved in promoting these
mass murderers/torturers and rapists. Money, guns
and advisors are readily provided."
American officials have admitted that
al-Baghdadi was captured in 2005 and was held at Camp Bucca
until 2009. The new concentration camp was opened after Abu
Ghraib gained notoriety for American sadism where Iraqi men
and women—yes women as well as young girls—were not only
held but brutally tortured and sexually abused. Photos of
completely naked prisoners—men, women and girls—being
tortured, raped and sodomised by American soldiers were
widely circulated on the Internet. Most of the gruesome
photos were held back from the public. Donald Rumsfeld who
was George Bush’s Defense Secretary dismissed these crimes
with the flourish, “stuff happens.”
In the face of mounting evidence, other US
officials still claimed America “does not torture”. Facts,
however, are stubborn things. So what did the US do: stop
torturing and raping Iraqi men and women? Perish the
thought; the focus was changed from Abu Ghraib to Camp Bucca.
Many Americans and indeed the rest of the world had never
heard of this concentration camp until Ibrahim al-Badri/al-Baghdadi’s
eruption on the scene. The curious thing is that
al-Baghdadi’s murderous operations in Syria had the full
backing of the US and its Western and Arabian allies. Saudi
Arabia, Qatar, the UAE and Turkey have been deeply involved
in promoting these mass murderers/torturers and rapists.
Money, guns and advisors are readily provided.
So why was al-Baghdadi who had served in the
Iraqi army, released by the Americans in 2009 and what kind
of a deal was struck to facilitate his release? It is not
inconceivable—indeed it is more than likely—that al-Baghdadi
was released with the specific aim of promoting the most
virulent terrorist mastermind in order to advance US-Zionist
agenda in the region. After all, Osama bin Laden was also
the product of American involvement in Afghanistan. The
Americans not only helped him during the Afghan war against
the Soviets but also trained and nurtured him and his
An ISIL training camp for minors
and youths in Syria
Regrettably, some Muslims have a very
simplistic view of Osama bin Laden’s role; they consider him
a Muslim hero. They are impressed by his undoubted sacrifice
of comfortable existence in Saudi Arabia by going to
Afghanistan to join the struggle against Soviet occupation
troops. This cannot be denied or begrudged but his close
association with the Americans raises questions. True, Osama
probably thought he was using the Americans but who was
using whom is now a moot point.
"It is also
revealing that while Western governments talk about
fighting terrorism, they have turned a blind eye to
the flow of these alienated youth from their own
societies to go and fight in Syria and Iraq."
Imran Khan, chief of Pakistan’s Tehrik-e
Insaf party (PTI) speaking at a forum organized by the
American Strategy for the New American Foundation in
Washington revealed on June 17, 2009 that Osama was brought
to Pakistan in a CIA plane in December 1989. Imran Khan
further said that he was invited by the Americans to meet
Osama at the US embassy in Islamabad. No one challenged his
assertion at the Washington gathering about CIA’s close
links with Osama. Even US Secretary of State, Hillary
Clinton admitted during the House of Representatives
hearings on April 23, 2009 that people against whom the US
was currently waging war were supported by Washington 20
Given this background, it cannot be ruled
out that al-Baghdadi is also the product of American policy
even if there has been no formal agreement between them.
Further, he has other powerful backers, especially Saudi
Arabia. The Saudi regime, fearing for its own survival, has
historically played the sectarian card to deflect attention.
Having largely failed in Syria where Bashar al-Asad has
almost defeated the US-Saudi-zionist sponsored conspiracy
against his rule, the Saudis have unleashed the ISIS thugs,
led by al-Baghdadi in Iraq. This scenario was quite
predictable since the Saudis were unlikely to give up so
easily. Besides, the real struggle is for supremacy in the
region. The Saudi regime and the equally unrepresentative
monarchies in the region are terrified of the rise of
Islamic Iran that has the backing of its people. Besides,
Iran’s influence is rising throughout the region and beyond.
The Saudis are loathed to concede any ground, hence their
hysterical anti-Shi‘i campaign and by unleashing ISIS-type
This is the only game they know. The real
tragedy of the Ummah is how easily some Muslims succumb to
such poisonous propaganda. Of course, the Saudis spend large
sums of money buying people’s loyalty. This is especially
true of so-called Imams of mosques in different countries
that are prepared to sell their souls for a few dollars and
readily indulge in spreading the Saudis’ poisonous
propaganda to divide Muslims. Unfortunately, such propaganda
has found fertile ground in places like Iraq, Lebanon,
Afghanistan and Pakistan where there are competing
constituencies for power and influence.
Western governments uttered a word against the
financiers of terrorism: the Saudi, Qatari and other
tribal regimes in the Middle East. They are all
partners in crime and their twin aims are the
protection of the illegal Zionist regime and state
in Occupied Palestine and the undermining of Islamic
Iran because it has stood up to the
In Iraq, the government of Prime Minister
Nouri al-Maliki can also not be absolved of responsibility.
Instead of being the prime minister of all Iraqis, he has
indulged in sectarian politics and rewarded his cronies
providing an opportunity for the hate-filled ideology of the
Saudis to take root. The disgruntled Ba‘thists have made
common cause with the ISIS takfiris against the central
government. While this marriage of convenience will not last
long, each setback to the unity of Muslims is a blow to the
Al-Baghdadi’s ruthlessness and guile have
attracted disgruntled Muslim youth from all over the world.
His utter disregard for the sanctity of human life has
eclipsed rival terrorist groups attracting more recruits to
his cause. He has proved absolutely ruthless in eliminating
opponents and has shown no hesitation in turning against
former allies to further his ambition of creating a
supposedly “Islamic” state—the much sought after Khilafah.
This is a romantic notion that many opportunists have
bandied about without understanding what is required to
establish one. Mass murder, public beheadings, killing
prisoners of war or robbing people’s homes are certainly not
acts that can be perpetrated to establish the Khilafah. It
is a complete perversion of Islam and its pristine
The ISIS chief stepped into the shoes of
Musab al-Zarqawi who was killed by the Americans in 2006.
While al-Zarqawi was from Jordan and therefore considered an
outsider in Iraq, al-Baghdadi is a local boy and has been
much more readily accepted by the disgruntled “Sunnis” in
the country. Interestingly, he did not establish his
credentials in Iraq but in Syria where he sent an aide, Abu
Mohammad al-Golani, to set up Al-Qaeda’s Nusra Front which
quickly rose to prominence with a series of deadly car
bombings and other terrorist acts.
There is evidence that al-Baghdadi had
pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden. Following the
latter’s killing in May 2011, there was an uneasy
relationship with Ayman al-Zawahiri but al-Baghdadi’s
ambitions led to a break with the Egyptian doctor and
Osama’s successor. Insiders say that al-Baghdadi did not
pledge allegiance to al-Zawahiri, asserting his independence
from the new al-Qaeda chief following Osama’s killing.
Besides, al-Zawahiri is somewhere in the
border region between Afghanistan and Pakistan and
therefore, far away from real action in the Levant while
al-Baghdadi is at the forefront. With Nusra’s ruthless
exploits in Syria—car bombings, public slitting of throats
of perceived opponents or even ordinary people that are not
part of the group—Golani split from al-Baghdadi. This led to
fierce fighting between the two resulting in much
bloodletting. When al-Zawahiri prohibited such infighting
because it alienated ordinary Muslims, al-Baghdadi refused
to abide by the “edict” and declared himself independent.
This signaled the end of al-Zawahiri’s leadership and
al-Qaeda’s claim to being the sole leader of the terrorist
front. More ruthless operatives had emerged on the scene.
is the US involved in the rise of the ISIS and
promotion of al-Baghdadi are not rhetorical
questions or conspiracy theories."
Al-Baghdadi is known to be extremely
secretive and does not trust anyone apart from a very select
inner core group of people. He shuns publicity, unlike the
late Osama bin Laden who thrived on it. He has made his
supporters believe that he would establish an Islamic state
and avenge the humiliation that Muslims have suffered at the
hands of the enemies of Islam. This has certainly attracted
admirers to his cause, many of them misguided youth
alienated from society including many in the West. It is
also revealing that while Western governments talk about
fighting terrorism, they have turned a blind eye to the flow
of these alienated youth from their own societies to go and
fight in Syria and Iraq.
Nor have Western governments uttered a word
against the financiers of terrorism: the Saudi, Qatari and
other tribal regimes in the Middle East. They are all
partners in crime and their twin aims are the protection of
the illegal Zionist regime and state in Occupied Palestine
and the undermining of Islamic Iran because it has stood up
to the imperialist-Zionist thugs. This fiendish project will
ultimately fail but in the process a very large number of
innocent Muslims will pay a terrible price in life and
The real tragedy of the Ummah is the faulty
and simplistic understanding that many Muslims have about
The Syrian army is making steady progress against the
takfiris, thanks to the support of Hizbullah as well as
infighting between the cannibals and mercenaries that have
flooded into the Levant.
With the media focused on the crisis in
Ukraine and Crimea, and even though attention was
momentarily brought back to Syria because of Turkey’s
downing of a Syrian MiG fighter on March 23, developments in
Syria are going in favor of the government of President
Bashar al-Asad. The Turkish attack was seen by many in
Turkey as an attempt by Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan
to divert attention from the crisis that has engulfed his
Syrian forces have made strategic gains in
the Qalamoun-Yabroud area near the border with Lebanon. It
is strategically important because it serves as a link
between Homs and Damascus as well as a major transit route
for shipment of men and materiel from Lebanon. The Qalamoun
mountain range opens up to the desert bordering Hama,
Aleppo, Raqqa, and Deir al-Zour in the north, Iraq in the
east, and the Damascus countryside in the south. By
recapturing it, the Syrian army has put paid to plans of the
imperialist-Zionist-Wahhabi-backed terrorists to extend
their writ to the east of the Damascus-Homs highway. Their
plan was to divide Syria horizontally with Damascus and
south Syria cut off from the north where the terrorists
planned to establish their Wahhabi-takfiri fiefdom.
The Qalamoun-Yabroud area also served as a
launching pad for suicide and car bombers into Lebanon.
While such attacks will be much reduced, they will not end
altogether because the takfiris have a visceral hatred of
Shi‘is and Hizbullah. The latter has played a major role in
bolstering Syrian military efforts in confronting and
defeating the takfiris. The rebels are fighting among
themselves blaming “traitors” for the loss of the vital
region while Syrian field commanders are ecstatic. They see
the victory as more than capturing a strategic triangle:
they feel the victory will lead to “positive aftershocks”
throughout the Homs and Damascus regions in the coming weeks
In-fighting between rebel groups especially
between Jabhat al-Nusra, the Islamic State of Iraq and the
Levant (ISIL) and the Islamic Front has intensified with
each blaming the other for the loss. A meeting between
commanders in Istanbul soon after their rout from
Qalamoun-Yabroud was reported to be stormy with blame being
hurled at each other. Not the most polite or civilized
bunch, they came to fist-fights several times as well as
drawing guns. This is what usually happens when fighters
working at the behest of foreign masters lose successive
battles. Some of their foreign masters — Qatar and Turkey,
for instance — are also having second thoughts about the
whole project given the fact that the Syrian government has
not collapsed as they had anticipated. Further, the
Saudi-Qatari spat (both support the terrorists in Syria) is
also not helping the takfiris’ cause.
While it may be too early to write the
obituary of the foreign-inspired conspiracy in Syria, the
outlines are clearly visible. Even the perennially
optimistic Lakhdar Brahimi, United Nations-Arab League
Special Representative for Syria, dismissed the likelihood
of a new round of peace talks on the crisis at the present
juncture. “A return to Geneva is out of the question for the
time being because the criteria have not been met,” Brahimi
said in Kuwait on March 24.
Defeating the imperialist-Zionist-Wahhabi plot in Syria will
lead to positive developments in the entire region.