Shi‘a Muslims this weblog is hopes to serve as a modest instrument for introducing Shi‘a Islam to you.And isYour gateway to an academic encounter with the Shi‘a Islam tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com 2017-10-15T21:43:53+01:00 mihanblog.com what is Ashura 2017-09-20T10:06:13+01:00 2017-09-20T10:06:13+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/90 A.A.Nasr History of The Day of Ashura Hussain ibn Ali was the grandson of Muhammad (the last prophet of Islam), born in 620 AD to a family famed for their values of love, honour and peace. Hussain was a leader who was known widely for his compassion, wisdom and integrity. Not long after the death of Muhammad, the Muslim empire had slid into political turmoil and corruption as Yazid (from the Ummayad dynasty) usurped power and slowly began destroying the moral

History of The Day of Ashura

Hussain ibn Ali was the grandson of Muhammad (the last prophet of Islam), born in 620 AD to a family famed for their values of love, honour and peace. Hussain was a leader who was known widely for his compassion, wisdom and integrity. Not long after the death of Muhammad, the Muslim empire had slid into political turmoil and corruption as Yazid (from the Ummayad dynasty) usurped power and slowly began destroying the moral fabric of society.

Hussain ibn Ali is buried today in the land of Karbala, Iraq, where millions of visitors come annually to pay homage to him.

Hussain ibn Ali is buried today in the land of Karbala, Iraq, where millions of visitors come annually to pay homage to him.

Yazid wanted Hussain to pay him an oath of allegiance in order to gain credibility for his illegal rule. Hussain out of moral obligation towards his principles of social justice and honour refused to do so, despite it being a risk to his life.

Hussain chose to make a stand, and began a small but mighty uprising – he chose to leave the comfort of his own city and begin a journey eastwards towards modern day Iraq. Hussain travelled with his family and 72 companions to make it clear that he did not want violence, but was prepared to defend himself and sacrifice all he had for the greater good of his people.

Word reached Yazid of Hussain’s movement and out of fear it would gain momentum he dispatched an army of 30,000 to halt Hussain and his supporters in their tracks. They were blocked from moving further until Hussain pledged allegiance, but Hussain resisted. Yazid ordered his army to attack and kill Hussain and his supporters, on the 10th day of the first month of the Islamic calendar (Muharram) – which is known as The Day of Ashura (the 10th day)

Ashura and The Battle of Karbala

Illustration of the battle map where Hussain and his camp had been encircled by an army of 30,000.

Illustration of the battle map where Hussain and his camp had been encircled by an army of 30,000.

Hussain and his supporters had been stopped in the desert land of Karbala (in Iraq), where they had been denied access to water for 3 days. At dawn on the Day of Ashura, Hussain and his men made their prayers, knowing that what was ahead of them was certain defeat yet they all remained steadfast and loyal to their principles.

The battle of Karbala commenced at noon, small bands of men dispatched Hussain’s camp to go and fight valiantly against the army of Yazid. One after the other Hussain’s supporters fought and died until eventually Hussain had no one left to support his resistance.

Hussain was fatigued, thirsty and heavily wounded having fought bravely against the enemy, until eventually he fell. The enemy forces attacked him from all sides with swords, spears and arrows until a man by the name of Shimr ruthlessly beheaded Hussain on the burning plains of Karbala.

The legacy of Ashura

Whilst Hussain died in the battle, he was victorious through his legacy. His actions and the stand he made at Karbala triggered a series of small uprisings against the tyrannical regime of Yazid which led to his eventual demise. Yazid’s army took the women and children from Hussain’s camp as war prisoners and marched from Iraq to Syria where they were held captive.

Hussain’s sister Zainab and his son Zain Al-Abideen, defied Yazid in his own courtyard in famous sermons which unnerved even his closest allies. Thereon, the remaining members of Hussain’s family spread the word to the people about the massacre which took place and the crimes that were committed on The Day of Ashura.

The Day of Ashura – a day of mourning

mourning - ashura - ashura day

Hussain ibn Ali is remembered around the world as a symbol of resistance who stood for humanitarian values.

The Day of Ashura is mourned and remembered by millions of people across the world as the day Hussain and his supporters were killed in The Battle of Karbala. Today, pilgrims from all across the world visit the shrine of Hussain ibn Ali in Karbala where he is buried, to pay their tribute to his courageous stand.

On the day of Ashura many Muslims partake in large peaceful gatherings where they recite poems in memory of Hussain and his sacrifice whilst lamenting and beating their chest as a cultural tradition to display their grievance. Many people use the day of Ashura as a day to perform acts of kindness and charity as a way for them keep alive the very same principles and values Hussain gave his life for.

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who is Imam hussain 2017-09-20T09:50:32+01:00 2017-09-20T09:50:32+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/89 A.A.Nasr “I only desire to spread good values and prevent evil.” – Hussain ibn Ali  Imam Hussain was a 7th century revolutionary leader who made the ultimate stand for social justice in the face of corruption and tyranny. He gave everything, including his life, for the dignity of his society.Hussain ibn Ali was born in 620 AD in the city of Medina (present day Saudi Arabia). He came from a family renown for their strong values of justice, charity and peace – the family of Muha

“I only desire to spread good values and prevent evil.”

– Hussain ibn Ali

 

Imam Hussain was a 7th century revolutionary leader who made the ultimate stand for social justice in the face of corruption and tyranny. He gave everything, including his life, for the dignity of his society.

Hussain ibn Ali was born in 620 AD in the city of Medina (present day Saudi Arabia). He came from a family renown for their strong values of justice, charity and peace – the family of Muhammad (the Prophet of Islam). Hussain was widely respected across the lands of Arabia and beyond for his generosity, sincerity and wisdom.

Despite coming from a relatively privileged background and being a prominent figure in the Islamic Empire, Hussain would dismiss the grandeur of his status, in favour of breaking bread with the poor and needy. He challenged the status quo and brought people together.

Hussain ibn Ali, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad took a stand against Yazid’s illegitimate rule. Whilst Yazid was in equal parts feared and despised for his ruthlessness, Hussain was admired and respected by society at large. Mindful of this, Yazid decided that he would demand Hussain’s allegiance, hoping to gain some form of legitimacy for his inherited rule.

Hussain had a choice to make. To endorse Yazid would no doubt mean a handsome reward and a life of luxury. To refuse would invariably lead to his own demise. What should he do? What would you or I do? For Hussain the choice between the easy thing and the right thing was no choice at all.

Hussain refused.

He said: “I will never give Yazid my hand like a man who has been humiliated, nor will I flee like a slave… I have not risen to spread evil or to show off… I only desire to enjoin good values and prevent evil.”

The journey from Mecca to Kufa.

His life now under threat, Hussain decided to move himself and his family to Mecca in the hope that Yazid’s agents would respect the holy city. As he waited, pondering his next move, messages of support began to arrive from across the empire. He left for Kufa, a city in Iraq, but en route, he was intercepted by a battalion of Yazid’s soldiers, who blocked Hussain and his supporters from going towards Kufa and instead forcibly diverted towards the desert town of Karbala.

Once they reached Karbala, forces surrounded their small band and blocked their access to the water supply. With both camps stationed at Karbala, a stalemate ensued. Hussain had made it clear that he could not, and would not, bow to Yazid. The opposing forces of 30,000 soldiers, which vastly outnumbered Hussain’s small band of seventy-two men and their families, were under strict orders not to let Hussain leave.

After a week, word reached Hussain that Yazid had sent orders that he was not to be allowed to leave Karbala until he had taken an oath of allegiance. The end was drawing close.

The final stand of Hussain ibn Ali.

That night Hussain assembled his group, stressing to them that it was his life that Yazid wanted and that they might be able to escape. Again, Hussain’s selflessness shone through. There he stood, amongst his family and companions, all having been deprived of water in the scorching desert for three days, pleading with them to leave him and save themselves!

After a few days of this stalemate, the government forces were commanded to attack and kill Hussain and his companions. Hussain’s men were vastly outnumbered.  The hour for battle commenced, Hussain’s companions departed from their camp in small bands and one after the other – all fighting valiantly before being killed.

Throughout the day the forces of Yazid asked Hussain for his allegiance, yet Hussain resisted. Eventually Hussain was alone with no one left to support him. Fatigued, thirsty, and heavily wounded, Hussain fell to the ground as the women and children looked on.

He too was killed mercilessly, yet he died holding on firmly to his principles.


Hussain’s victory and inspiring legacy.

After his death, the women and children from Hussain’s party were taken captive. His sister, Zainab, took up the mantle of leadership of the small band, and gave speech after speech condemning the actions of Yazid and his government, culminating in a confrontation in the ruler’s own court. Zainab was perhaps the first person to be inspired by Hussain’s stand, using it as a catalyst for change. She refused to be subdued and put her fear to one side so she could hold to account those responsible for the moral decay of society.

Despite the pervasive sexism of society at the time, Zainab managed to lead and inspire both men and women. Hussain’s example, that one man can stand alone against an army of thousands, inspired her to the point where she castigated and berated a murderous dictator in his own palace, laying the foundations for the eventual overthrow of  the Umayyad dynasty.

Today millions of people pay homage to Hussain ibn Ali for his stand and annually mourn the tragic Battle of Karbala in which Hussain, his family and loyal companions were brutally killed one by one. Pilgrims from all walks of life visit the Imam Hussain shrine to pay their respects in the city of Karbala, Iraq.

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Norooz,The Persian New Year 2017-03-20T01:22:36+01:00 2017-03-20T01:22:36+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/88 A.A.Nasr Nowruz is the traditional Iranian festival of spring which starts at the exact moment of the vernal equinox, commencing the start of the spring. It is considered as the start of the New Year among Iranians. The name comes from Avestan meaning "new day/daylight".Today might be the first day of spring, but in Iran March 20 marks the start of a new year. Known as Nowruz or Norooz, the holiday means “New Day” and commemorates the Persian New Year.The holiday, which dates back 3,000

Nowruz is the traditional Iranian festival of spring which starts at the exact moment of the vernal equinox, commencing the start of the spring. It is considered as the start of the New Year among Iranians. The name comes from Avestan meaning "new day/daylight".

Today might be the first day of spring, but in Iran March 20 marks the start of a new year. Known as Nowruz or Norooz, the holiday means “New Day” and commemorates the Persian New Year.

The holiday, which dates back 3,000 years, is rooted in Zoroastrianism – an ancient Iranian religion that influenced later religions including Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Norooz is considered one of the largest celebrations of the year with Iranians of all religions taking part in the festivities.

This year, Norooz begins at 13:58 p.m. local time in Tehran on Monday and lasts for 12 days.

For those unfamiliar with Norooz, here are answers to common questions surrounding the Persian New Year.

How Is Norooz Celebrated

Before Norooz begins, on the last Wednesday before the New Year, Chahar Shanbe Suri is celebrated to cast away the misfortunes of the past year. Participants jump over bonfires with songs and gestures. A popular one, "Zardie man az to, sorkhie to az man," translates to, "May my sickly pallor be yours and your red glow be mine."

The phrase symbolizes trading in the color yellow, which represents sickness, to red, which is a sign of health.

A major part of the New Year celebration involves setting the "Haft Seen." also known as the seven S’s. The traditional table setting includes seven items that all begin with the letter “seen” in the Persian alphabet. These seven things usually are: Seeb (apple), Sabzeh (green grass), Serkeh (vinager), Samanoo (a meal made out of wheat), Senjed (a special kind of berry), Sekke (coin), and Seer (garlic).

At the exact moment of the New Year, known as Tahvil, families hug and kiss each other, wishing one another a happy new year. Cash, coins and gold are given as gifts – usually from the adults to the children.  

On the 13th day, known as Sizdah Bedar, it’s typical for families to spend the day outside. Iranians are known to go to parks for a picnic, since it is believed that remaining outdoors will help one avoid misfortune. Another tradition involves throwing green sprouts into rivers and lakes to symbolize the rebirth of plants and the end of the New Year festivities.

What Are Traditional Norooz Foods

Popular Norooz dishes include "sabzeh" or sprouts, a sign of rebirth; "seeb" or apples, for beauty; and "serkeh" or vinegar, which stands for age and patience. Traditionally, on New Year’s Eve, most Iranians will have Sabzi Polo Mahi, a dish of rice cooked with fresh herbs and served with smoked and freshly fried fish.

Popular Greetings

No-Rooz Mobarak (Happy No-Rooz, Happy New Year)

Eid-eh Shoma Mobarak (Happy New Year to You)

No-Rooz Pirooz (Wishing You a Prosperous New Year)

Sad Saal be in Saal-ha (Wishing You 100 More Happy New Years)


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28th Safar anniversary 2016-11-27T13:42:17+01:00 2016-11-27T13:42:17+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/87 A.A.Nasr ]]> What is Mourning of Muharram 2016-10-03T23:49:34+01:00 2016-10-03T23:49:34+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/86 A.A.Nasr    Muharram refers to the first month of the Islamic Calendar. The complete month of Muharram is sacred according to the Muslims. However, it is the tenth day which is of most significance. Different factions of the Muslim community observe this day for different reasons. While the Shia Muslims celebrate this day to mourn the death of Husayn Ibn Ali, the Sunni Muslims observe this day to celebrate the victory of Moses over Egyptian Pharaoh.According to the legend popular
  
Muharram refers to the first month of the Islamic Calendar. The complete month of Muharram is sacred according to the Muslims. However, it is the tenth day which is of most significance. Different factions of the Muslim community observe this day for different reasons. While the Shia Muslims celebrate this day to mourn the death of Husayn Ibn Ali, the Sunni Muslims observe this day to celebrate the victory of Moses over Egyptian Pharaoh.

According to the legend popular among Shia Muslims, Husayn Ibn Ali was beheaded during the Battle of Karbala on the tenth day of Muharram. Husayn Ibn Ali is an important figure in Muslim religion and is believed to be a member of the Muhammad's household. During the reign of Yazid, it is believed that Husayn refused to accept the Islamic rules laid down by Yazid. Instead, Husayn decided to revolt against the ruler which led to the uprising in Karbalan. During the battle of Karbalan, Husayn was beheaded while his family was imprisoned in Damascus. However, according to Sunni Muslims, it was on this day that Moses gained victory over Egyptian Pharaohs. Moses was a religious leader and was meant to propagate religious teachings around the world. It was on the tenth day of Muharram that Moses gained victory over the Pharaohs of Egypt, the most famous one being the Pharaoh of oppression.

As is evident, different factions of the Muslim community observe this day differently. While for Sunni Muslims, it is a day of celebration, for Shia Muslims, it is a day of mourning. However, both the factions have almost identical traditions. Both the factions observe fast on this day, with the Sunni Muslims observing fast for an extra day, either before or after this day. It is believed that this extra fasting day is observed in accordance with the teachings of Muhammad Prophet. In certain cases, the Shia Muslims fast for the whole month and also flagellate themselves with sticks and rods on this day. They harm themselves to commemorate the sufferings of Husayn Ibn Ali while fighting against the oppressive regime of Yazid. Other than that, there are no major celebrations on this day.


Mourning of Muharram

The Mourning of Muharram, Remembrance of Muharram, or Muharram Observances, is a set of rituals associated with both Shia and Sunni, which takes place in Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar. Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Hussainia.

The event marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala when Imam Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, was killed by the forces of the second Umayyad caliph Yazid I at Karbala. Family members, accompanying Hussein ibn Ali, were killed or subjected to humiliation. The commemoration of the event during yearly mourning season, from first of Muharram to twentieth of Safar with Ashura comprising the focal date, serves to define Shia communal identity. At present, Muharram observances are carried out in countries with a sizable Shia population.

The word of Azadari a persian word  which mean mourning and lamentation; and Majalis-e Aza have been exclusively used in connection with the remembrance ceremonies for the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. Majalis-e Aza, also known as Aza-e Husayn, includes mourning congregations, lamentations, matam and all such actions which express the emotions of grief and above all, repulsion against what Yazid stood for.

Expression of grief with thumping of the chest by Shia Muslims is known as Latmya, Latmaya or latmia in Arabic-Persian countries. In India and Pakistan it is called Matam or Matam-Dari/Sina Zannee (chest beating).

Muharram rituals was often called by European observers "the Feast of Hasan and Hosayn," as the participants shout "Hasan! Hosayn!."

The term majalis has both a grammatical meaning and a meaning which relates to Aza-e-Husayn. In its technical sense, a majalis is a meeting, a session or a gathering

According to Shia sources, The Azadari of Muharram was started by the family, specially womenfolk, of Muhammad (the Ahl-ul-Bayt) immediately after the death of his grandson and even before entering Damascus.[6] Following the battle of Karbala, Muhammad's granddaughter Zaynab bint Ali and sister of Imam Husayn, began mourning for the fallen and making speeches against Imam Husayn ibn Ali's opponents: Ibn Ziyad and Yazid I. News of Imam Husayn ibn Ali's death was spread by Imam Zain-ul-Abideen, who succeeded Imam Husayn as the Shia Imam, via sermons and speeches throughout Iraq, Syria and Hejaz]

Zainab and Imam Zain-ul-Abideen informed the people that Yazid had martyred Hossein ibn Ali and seventy-two of his companions including his six-month-old son Ali Asghar, and that their women and children were taken as prisoners to Syria. When word of mourning reached Yazid he decided to release the captive women and children from the prison in Damascus, out of fear of public revolt against his rule. He sent for Imam Zain-ul-Abideen, informed him of the impending release and asked if he wished for anything further. Imam Zain-ul-Abideen said he would consult with Zainab. She asked Yazid to provide a place where the people could mourn for Imam Husayn and others of Muhammad's household. A house was provided, and here Zaynab bint Ali held the first Majlis-e Aza of Imam Husayn and started the Mourning of Muharram.[citation needed]

10th of the month of Muharrem - The Day of Ashura: Huseyn bin Ali was murdered at Kerbela [8] Remembrance by Jafaris, Qizilbash Alevi-Turks and Bektashis together in the Ottoman Empire.
Reliable evidence of public mourning rituals dates back to 963 CE: historian Ibn Kathir recounts how Mu'izz al-Dawla ordered his people to wail over Husayn ibn Ali. The mourning rituals evolved differently in different places, until the Safavid dynasty established a centralized Shia state in the 16th century. the annual mourning ceremonies and ritual cursing of Husayn's enemies, acquired the status of a national institution. According to popular belief, Shia rituals spread to South Asia starting at the end of the 14th century with the conquests of Tamerlane.Observance has since spread to countries such as India, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, Syria, Nigeria, Tanzania, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Yemen, Bahrain, Azerbaijan and Lebanon

Types of mourning

After almost 12 centuries, five types of major rituals were developed around the battle of Karbala. These rituals include the memorial services (majalis al-ta'ziya), the visitation of Husayn's tomb in Karbala particularly on the occasion of the tenth day of Ashura and the fortieth day after the battle (Ziyarat Ashura and ziyarat al-Arba'in), the public mourning processions (al-mawakib al-husayniyya or the representation of the battle of Karbala in the form of a play (the shabih), and the flagellation (tatbir).

How the event is mourned differs between different branches of Shia and different ethnic groups. The event is observed by many Sunnis, but to a lesser extent, and as a time of remembrance, rather than mourning. The Nizam of Hyderabad/Deccan Mir Osman Ali Khan, was not only a Sunni Muslim and the famous powerful ruler of Hyderabad Deccan State till 1948 but also a great lover of Ahle Bait and promoter of Azadari.

Expressions of grief such as sine-zani (beating the chest), zangir-zani (beating oneself with chains), and tage-zani or qama-zani –also known as tatbir (hitting oneself with swords or knives)– emerged as common features of the proliferating mourning-processions (dasta-gardani) during Safavid rule. Mourning rituals take place in assemblies held in so-called Hussainiya or takia, as well as in mosques and private houses. In Iran, Husayn's funeral is reenacted by carrying a huge wooden structure (nakhl), which is usually carried by several hundred men.

In the Twelver three traditional schools (Usooli, Akhbari, and Shaykhi), mourners, both male and female, congregate (in separate sections) for sorrowful, poetic recitations performed in memory of the death of Husayn, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of "Ya Husayn." Passion plays are performed, reenacting the Battle of Karbala and the suffering and death of Husayn at the hands of Yazid. They offer condolences to Imam-e-Zamana also known as Imam al-Mahdi whom they believe will avenge the blood of Husayn and bring justice to the world.

Bektashis and Alevis also mourn, and they keep themselves from eating and drinking ("fasting") the first 10–12 days of Muharram. In this period, the Alevis wear black clothes, do not shave themselves and avoid entertainment and pleasure. Originally, it was forbidden to bathe and change clothes during this period, but today most Alevis do not follow this rule. This is called "Muharrem Matemi", "Yas-i Muharrem" or "Muharrem orucu". But because it is called "fasting", many people falsely think that Alevis celebrate the Muharram. The definition of the "fast" in this connection is different from the normal type of "fasting". Bektashis greet each other by saying "Ya Imam! Ya Husayn."

The only Ismaili group which mourns are the Mustaali, who mourn similarly to most Twelvers. Although, Nizari Ismaili commemorate Muharram through the tradition of not celebrating marriages, birthdays, and other religious celebrations during this time to show respect to their other Muslim brothers who are mourning.

For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques to provide free meals (nazar) on certain nights of the month to all people. These meals are viewed as being special and holy, as they have been consecrated in the name of Imam Husayn, and thus partaking of them is considered an act of communion with Allah, Imam Husayn, and humanity.

In South Asia, literary and musical genres produced by both Shias and Sunnis, that have been inspired by the Battle of Karbala are performed during the month, such as marsiya, noha and soaz. This is meant to increase the peoples understanding of how the enemies fought The Battle of Karbala against Husayn and his followers. In Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica all ethnic and religious communities participate in the event, locally known as "Hosay" or "Hussay". In Indonesia, the event is known as Tabuik (Minangkabau language) or Tabut (Indonesian).

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what is muharram 2016-10-03T23:22:20+01:00 2016-10-03T23:22:20+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/85 A.A.Nasr Muḥarram (Arabic: مُحَرَّم‎‎ muḥarram) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year. Since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, Muharram moves from year to year when compared with the Gregorian calendar. The word "Muharram" means "forbidden". It is held to be the second holiest month, following Ramadan. Some Muslims fast during these days. The tenth day of Muharram is the Day of Ashura, which to Shia Muslims is part of the Mourning o

Muḥarram (Arabic: مُحَرَّم‎‎ muḥarram) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year. Since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, Muharram moves from year to year when compared with the Gregorian calendar.

The word "Muharram" means "forbidden". It is held to be the second holiest month, following Ramadan. Some Muslims fast during these days. The tenth day of Muharram is the Day of Ashura, which to Shia Muslims is part of the Mourning of Muharram.

Sunni Muslims fast during this day, because it is recorded in the hadith that Musa (Moses) and his people obtained a victory over the Egyptian Pharaoh on the 10th day of Muharram; accordingly Muhammad asked Muslims to fast on this day that is Ashura and on a day before that is 9th (called Tasu'a).

Shia Muslims during Muharram do different things and with different intentions. They observe and respect Muharram as the month that martyred Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad and son of Ali, in the Battle of Karbala. They mourn for Hussein ibn Ali and refrain from all joyous events. Unlike Sunni Muslims, Shias do not fast in this month, especially on the 9th and 10th days of Muharram. In addition there is an important Ziyarat book, the Ziyarat Ashura about Hussein ibn Ali. In the Shia sect it is popular to read this ziyarat on the "Day of Ashura", although most of the Shias try to read Ziyarat Ashura every day and they send salutations to Hussein ibn Ali

Muharram and Ashura

With the sighting of the new moon the Islamic New Year is ushered in. The first month, Muharram, is one of the four sacred months that Allah has mentioned in the Quran: Muharram, Rajab, Dhu al-Qi'dah, and Dhu al-Hijjah. Even before Islam came, Quraish and Arabs as a whole knew the sanctity of the months and were forbidden to wage wars on those months.

Muharram and Ashura to the Sunnis

Without any relation whatsoever to the event of Battle of Karbala, Muslims are encouraged to observe fasting on the tenth day (Ashura). The ninth day (Tasu'a) is also advised.

Muharram and Ashura to the Shia

Main article: Mourning of Muharram
Shia Muslims in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in a Hussainia as part of the commemoration of Muharram
Shia Muslim children in Amroha, India on camels in front of Azakhana as part of the procession commemorating events on & after Day of Ashura

Muharram is a month of remembrance and modern Shia meditation that is often considered synonymous with Ashura. Ashura, which literally means the "Tenth" in Arabic, refers to the tenth day of Muharram. It is well-known because of historical significance and mourning for the murder of Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad.

Shiite begin mourning from the first night of Muharram and continue for ten nights, climaxing on the 10th of Muharram, known as the Day of Ashura. The last few days up until and including the Day of Ashura are the most important because these were the days in which Imam Hussein and his family and followers (including women, children and elderly people) were deprived of water from the 7th onward and on the 10th, Imam Hussain and 72 of his followers were killed by the army of Yazid I at the Battle of Karbala on Yazid's orders. The surviving members of Imam Hussein's family and those of his followers were taken captive, marched to Damascus, and imprisoned there.

After almost 12 centuries, five types of major rituals were developed around the battle of Karbala. These rituals include the memorial services (majalis al-ta'ziya), the visitation of Husayn's tomb in Karbala particularly on the occasion of the tenth day of Ashura and the fortieth day after the battle (Ziyarat Ashura and ziyarat al-Arba'in), the public mourning processions (al-mawakib al-husayniyya or the representation of the battle of Karbala in the form of a play (the shabih), and the flagellation (tatbir)

How the event is mourned differs between different branches of Shia and different ethnic groups. The event is observed by many Sunnis, but to a lesser extent, and as a time of remembrance, rather than mourning. The Nizam of Hyderabad/Deccan Mir Osman Ali Khan, was not only a Sunni Muslim and the famous powerful ruler of Hyderabad Deccan State till 1948 but also a great lover of Ahle Bait and promoter of Azadari.

Expressions of grief such as sine-zani (beating the chest), zangir-zani (beating oneself with chains), and tage-zani or qama-zani –also known as tatbir (hitting oneself with swords or knives)– emerged as common features of the proliferating mourning-processions (dasta-gardani) during Safavid rule. Mourning rituals take place in assemblies held in so-called Hussainiya or takia, as well as in mosques and private houses. In Iran, Husayn's funeral is reenacted by carrying a huge wooden structure (nakhl), which is usually carried by several hundred men.

In the Twelver three traditional schools (Usooli, Akhbari, and Shaykhi), mourners, both male and female, congregate (in separate sections) for sorrowful, poetic recitations performed in memory of the death of Husayn, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of "Ya Husayn." Passion plays are performed, reenacting the Battle of Karbala and the suffering and death of Husayn at the hands of Yazid. They offer condolences to Imam-e-Zamana also known as Imam al-Mahdi whom they believe will avenge the blood of Husayn and bring justice to the world.

Bektashis and Alevis also mourn, and they keep themselves from eating and drinking ("fasting") the first 10–12 days of Muharram. In this period, the Alevis wear black clothes, do not shave themselves and avoid entertainment and pleasure. Originally, it was forbidden to bathe and change clothes during this period, but today most Alevis do not follow this rule. This is called "Muharrem Matemi", "Yas-i Muharrem" or "Muharrem orucu". But because it is called "fasting", many people falsely think that Alevis celebrate the Muharram. The definition of the "fast" in this connection is different from the normal type of "fasting". Bektashis greet each other by saying "Ya Imam! Ya Husayn."

The only Ismaili group which mourns are the Mustaali, who mourn similarly to most Twelvers. Although, Nizari Ismaili commemorate Muharram through the tradition of not celebrating marriages, birthdays, and other religious celebrations during this time to show respect to their other Muslim brothers who are mourning.

For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques to provide free meals (nazar) on certain nights of the month to all people. These meals are viewed as being special and holy, as they have been consecrated in the name of Imam Husayn, and thus partaking of them is considered an act of communion with Allah, Imam Husayn, and humanity.

In South Asia, literary and musical genres produced by both Shias and Sunnis, that have been inspired by the Battle of Karbala are performed during the month, such as marsiya, noha and soaz. This is meant to increase the peoples understanding of how the enemies fought The Battle of Karbala against Husayn and his followers. In Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica[15] all ethnic and religious communities participate in the event, locally known as "Hosay" or "Hussay". In Indonesia, the event is known as Tabuik (Minangkabau language) or Tabut (Indonesian).

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The Eighth Imam, ‘Ali Ibn Musa, Al-Ridha’ (as) 2016-08-13T22:30:58+01:00 2016-08-13T22:30:58+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/84 A.A.Nasr For reading the history of Imam Reza's life ..just click on this sentence






For reading the history of Imam Reza's life ..just click on this sentence
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shi'a Fasting Rules 2016-06-07T22:53:45+01:00 2016-06-07T22:53:45+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/83 A.A.Nasr For major  Ramadan rules. click on the sentence belowFasting Rules from Islamic Laws by Ayatullah Seestani –Lectures on Fiqh by Maulana Sadiq Hasan NIYYAT FOR FASTINGNiyyat for fasting during the month of Ramadan must be done before Dawn (Fajr), unless there are special cases as discussed above (e.g. Yamul Shak). Niyyat for fasting for the whole month of Ramadan can be done once at the beginning of Ramadan. Niyyat for Qaza fast of Ramadan can be done befor

ramadan fast

For major  Ramadan rules. click on the sentence below

Fasting Rules from Islamic Laws by Ayatullah Seestani –Lectures on Fiqh by Maulana Sadiq Hasan

NIYYAT FOR FASTING

Niyyat for fasting during the month of Ramadan must be done before Dawn (Fajr), unless there are special cases as discussed above (e.g. Yamul Shak). Niyyat for fasting for the whole month of Ramadan can be done once at the beginning of Ramadan.

Niyyat for Qaza fast of Ramadan can be done before Dawn or anytime before Zawal time (Islamic mid-day) on that day provided you have not done anything from Dawn to niyyat time which breaks fast.

Niyyat for any Mustahab fast can be done before Dawn or anytime before Maghrib on that day provided you have not done anything, which breaks fast.

 

Notes of Lectures on Fiqh by Maulana Sadiq Hasan Lecture # 31 (Thursday 16 October 2003)

 

HARAM FASTS

 

Ten types of fasts are haram (forbidden) in Islam:

1. Fasting on Eidul Fitr Day

2. Fasting on Eidul Adha Day

3. Fasting on Tashreek Days (11 to 13 Zilhijj for those who will be in Mina)

4. Fasting on Yaumul Shak (30th Shaban)

5. Fasting by a Traveller in Ramadan

6. Fasting by a Sick Person in Ramadan

7. Fast of Silence

8. Fast of Visal (Fasting intentionally for 2 consecutive days including the night in between)

9. Fasting of thanks (shukr) for Haram Acts

10. Mustahab fast without permission from those of whom permissions are necessary

ramadan fasting rules

FASTING ON YAUMUL SHAK

 

30th day of Shaban is called Yamul Shak (doubtful day) if you do not receive news about Ramadan moonsighting on 29th evening or before the end of 30th day.

It is haram to fast on 30th Shaban with the intention of 1st of Ramadan.

It is Mustahab to keep fast on 30th Shaban but the Niyyat (intention) should be either

(a) with the Niyyat of Mafiz-zimma (to discharge my responsibility), or

(b) with the Niyyat of any Qaza fast of previous Ramadan, if any, or

(c) with the Niyyat of Mustahab Shaban fast.

If you do a double Niyyat of fasting (i.e. 30th Shaban or 1st Ramadan), then such a Niyyat is wrong according Ayatullah Khui, but it is OK according to Khomeini and Seestani.

If you are fasting on 30th Shaban, and if, at any time on that day, you get the news of moon sighting of 29th Shaban, then you must immediately change Niyyat to Niyyat of 1st of Ramadan.

If you have fasted on 30th Shaban (with any Niyyat), and afterwards you come to know that it was 1st of Ramadan, then your fast will automatically be counted as fast of 1st of Ramadan.

If you are not fasting on 30th Shaban, then following actions are necessary on you:

(a) If you get the news after sunset of 30th Shaban or later that the moon had been actually sighted on evening of 29th Shaban, then you have to keep Qaza of 1st Ramadan after the month of Ramadan.

(b) If you get the news of moon sighting after Zawal time (Islamic mid-day), then it is haram to eat or drink or do anything, which is not allowed during fasting from that time onward until Iftar time on that day, and you have to do Qaza of 1st of Ramadan later on.

(c) If you get the news of moon sighting before Zawal time (Islamic mid-day), then

(i) if you have not eaten or drunk anything or done anything which breaks fast, you must immediately do the Niyyat of fasting of Ramadan for that day,

(ii) if you have eaten or drunk something or have done anything which breaks fast, then you have to act as if fasting for the rest of the day, and then do Qaza of 1st of Ramadan later on.

ramadan fasting in iran

FASTING OF A TRAVELLER IN RAMADAN

 

According to Islamic sharia, a traveller is normally a person who travels from his home to another town or place with the intention of staying there for less than 10 days.

Fasting by a traveller during the month of Ramadan is haram.

If you start your journey after Zawal time (Islamic mid-day) in Ramadan, then it is wajib to complete fasting for that day.

If you start your journey before Zawal time in Ramadan, then it is wajib to start fast on that day, and then your fast will automatically break after you have travelled a certain distance from your home town.

If you were travelling, and you return to your home (or arrive at a place where you are going to stay for 10 days or more) after Zawal time (Islamic mid-day) in Ramadan, then you can not fast on that day, but it is Mustahab to respect fasting on that day. You have to do Qaza fast for that

day and all fasts missed during travelling.

If you were travelling, and you return to your home (or arrive at a place where you are going to stay for10 days or more) before Zawal time (Islamic mid-day) in Ramadan, and if you have not done anything which breaks fast, then it is wajib to keep fast for that day. However if you have

done anything which breaks fast, then you can not fast on that day, but it is Mustahab to respect fasting on that day, and you have to do Qaza fast for that day afterwards.

If you are a traveller during the month of Ramadan, and staying somewhere for less than 10 days, then you can not keep even any other fast (Mustahab fast or Qaza fast of previous Ramadan) during those days.

 

wassalam

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Fasting in Ramadan 2016-06-04T11:21:25+01:00 2016-06-04T11:21:25+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/79 A.A.Nasr IN THE NAME OF THE GODFasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the ‘pillars’ of the Islamic faith. No proof is required to establish its being obligatory (wajib) and one denying it goes out of the fold of Islam, because it is obvious like salat, and in respect of anything so evidently established both the learned and the unlettered, the elderly and the young, all stand on an equal footing. It was declared an obligatory duty (fard) in the second year of the Hijrah upon e ramadan fast
IN THE NAME OF THE GOD

Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the ‘pillars’ of the Islamic faith. No proof is required to establish its being obligatory (wajib) and one denying it goes out of the fold of Islam, because it is obvious like salat, and in respect of anything so evidently established both the learned and the unlettered, the elderly and the young, all stand on an equal footing.

It was declared an obligatory duty (fard) in the second year of the Hijrah upon each and every mukallaf (one capable of carrying out religious duties, i.e. a sane adult) and breaking it (iftar) is not permissible except for any of the following reasons:

1. Hayd and nifas: The schools concur that fasting is not valid for women during menstruation and puerperal bleeding.

2. Illness: The schools differ here. The Imamis observe: Fasting is not valid if it would cause illness or aggravate it, or intensify the pain, or delay recovery, because illness entails harm (darar) and causing harm is prohibited (muharram). Moreover, a prohibition concerning an ‘ibadah (a rite of worship) invalidates it. Hence if a person fasts in such a condition, his fast is not valid (sahih). A predominant likelihood of its resulting in illness or its aggravation is sufficient for refraining from fasting. As to excessive weakness, it is not a justification for iftar as long as it is generally bearable. Hence the extenuating cause is illness, not weakness, emaciation or strain, because
every duty involves hard- ship and discomfort.

The four Sunni schools state: If one who is fasting (sa’im) falls ill, or fears the aggravation of his illness, or delay in recovery, he has the option to fast or refrain. Iftar is not incumbent upon him; it is a relaxation and not an obligation in this situation. But where there is likelihood of death or loss of any of the senses, iftar is obligatory for him and his fasting is not valid.

3. A woman in the final stage of pregnancy and nursing mothers. The four schools say: If a pregnant or nursing woman fears harm for her own health or that of her child, her fasting is valid though it is permissible for her to refrain from fasting. If she opts for iftar, the schools concur that she is bound to perform its qada’ later. They differ regarding its substitute (fidyah) and atonement (kaffarah).

In this regard the Hanafis observe: It is not at all wajib. The Malikis are of the opinion that it is wajib for a nursing woman, not for a pregnant one. The Hanbalis and the Shafi’is say: Fidyah is wajib upon a pregnant and a nursing woman only if they fear danger for the child; but if they fear harm for their own health as well as that of the child, they are bound to perform the qada’ only without being required to give fidyah. the fidyah for each day is one mudd, which amounts to feeding one needy person (miskeen).1

The Imamis state: If a pregnant woman nearing childbirth or the child of a nursing mother may suffer harm, both of them ought to break their fast and it is not valid for them to continue fasting due to the impermissibility of harm. They concur that both are to perform the qada’ as well as give fidyah, equaling one mudd, if the harm is feared for the child. But if the harm is feared only for her own person, some among them observe: She is bound to perform qada’ but not to give fidyah, others say:

She is bound to perform qada’ and give fidyah as well.

4. Travel, provided the conditions necessary for salat al-qasr, as mentioned

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Muhammad's first revelation 2016-05-04T21:44:01+01:00 2016-05-04T21:44:01+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/78 A.A.Nasr Happy Muhammad's first revelation to all Muslims all over the world

Happy Muhammad's first revelation to all Muslims all over the world
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New Iranian year 1395 2016-03-19T07:19:46+01:00 2016-03-19T07:19:46+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/77 A.A.Nasr Happy new  Iranian year to all persians


Happy new  Iranian year to all persians


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praying to God 2016-02-03T00:32:14+01:00 2016-02-03T00:32:14+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/76 A.A.Nasr Why Do We Have To Pray 5 Times a Day God doesn’t need our prayers, right? So, why did He order us to pray to Him 5 times every day? What is the significance of prayer Have you ever reflected on the words you say near the end of every prayer? They are (translated into English)“Greetings to God, and prayers and all good things.”“Peace is upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of God and His blessings.”“Peace be upon us, and upon all righteous worshipers of God.





Why Do We Have To Pray 5 Times a Day



God doesn’t need our prayers, right? So, why did He order us to pray to Him 5 times every day? What is the significance of prayer

Have you ever reflected on the words you say near the end of every prayer? They are (translated into English)

“Greetings to God, and prayers and all good things.”

“Peace is upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of God and His blessings.”

“Peace be upon us, and upon all righteous worshipers of God. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His worshiper and Messenger.”

It is called At-Tashahhud, as you know. It sounds like a conversation, doesn’t it

I read a long time ago that it is the conversation that took place between the Prophet (PBUH) and God, when God invited him up above the Seventh Heaven and before His Throne during the Night and Ascension journey (Al-Israa’ wal-Mi`raaj)

Whoa! When we pray, we are in an ascension toward God. Does that answer your question about significance? No wonder many of the Salaf (Muslim predecessors), such as An-Naysapoori and As-Suyooti, have described prayer as “the ascension of the believer”

Prayer is so important that it is the only mandate in Islam that was made directly by God to the Prophet (PBUH) on the Ascension journey. Everything else was conveyed by Gabriel as Quran or in inspirations as Hadith

 

One Qudsi (holy) Hadeeth, narrated by Abu-Qataada and reported by Ibn Maajah and Abu-Daawood, states that prayer is “the covenant between God and the believers. If they keep it, God will fulfill His Covenant with them by admitting them to Paradise. If they don’t keep it, they have no covenant!”



Prayer, therefore, is the most important tool we have to keep our covenant with God.

 
Why do we have to pray? Do you need to eat and drink everyday to stay alive? That’s the food for the body. The food for the soul is the company of God. Prayer gives us that. God does not need our prayers. We do. Our souls would die without it.

One of the fascinating verses in the Quran to me is this, “So, endure what they say and sanctify with praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting; and during periods of the night sanctify [God] and at the ends of the day, that you may be contented.” (20:130)

 
Did you notice that? “so that you may be contented“. We are the beneficiaries of prayer. That verse also answers the question, “why five times?” Because our soul needs its food that often, much like our bodies need to eat and drink three or more times everyday
 

The spreading of prayer times over the waking hours also serves to make each one lighter to do and leaves no period without the remembrance of God, which we all need to stay focused on what’s really important.

Do you take a bath frequently to keep clean? The Prophet (PBUH) gave that parable about the prayer
 

He said to his fellows, “See you if there was a river by the door of one of you, in which he bathes five times a day; does that leave out of his dirt anything?” They answered, “That would not leave out of his dirt anything.” He replied, “That is the parable of the five prayers: God erases with them the sins.”

With every prayer, you have audience with the King of kings, where you can ask Him for anything and stay with Him as long as you want. How many kings come close to that Grace
praying ]]>
Who is Sheikh Nimr Bāqr an-Nimr 2016-01-08T13:43:43+01:00 2016-01-08T13:43:43+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/75 A.A.Nasr Nimr Baqir al-Nimr (Arabic: نمر باقر النمر‎ Nimr Bāqr an-Nimr;[1] 1959 – 2 January 2016; also Romanized Bakir al-Nimral-Nemr al-Namr al-Nimer, al-Nemer, al-Namer), commonly referred to as Sheikh Nimr, was a Shia Sheikh in al-Awamiyah in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province whose arrest and later execution created diplomatic tension between Shia and Sunni governments] He was popular among youth[1][6] and critical of the Saudi Arabian government,[1] callin



Nimr Baqir al-Nimr (Arabic: نمر باقر النمر Nimr Bāqr an-Nimr;[1] 1959 – 2 January 2016; also Romanized Bakir al-Nimral-Nemr al-Namr al-Nimer, al-Nemer, al-Namer), commonly referred to as Sheikh Nimr, was a Shia Sheikh in al-Awamiyah in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province whose arrest and later execution created diplomatic tension between Shia and Sunni governments] He was popular among youth[1][6] and critical of the Saudi Arabian government,[1] calling for free elections in Saudi Arabia.[] He was arrested by Saudi authorities in 2006, at which time al-Nimr said he was beaten by the Mabahith.[] In 2009, he criticised Saudi authorities and suggested that if Saudi Shia rights were not respected, the Eastern Province should secede. Saudi authorities responded by arresting al-Nimr and 35 others. During the 2011–12 Saudi Arabian protests, al-Nimr called for protestors to resist police bullets using "the roar of the word" rather than violence, and predicted the collapse of the government if repression continued. The Guardian described al-Nimr as having "taken the lead in [the] uprising”


On 8 July 2012 Saudi police shot al-Nimr in the leg and arrested him in what police described as an "exchange of gunfire” Saudi police fired into a crowd of thousands who protested al-Nimr's arrest, killing two men, Akbar al-Shakhouri and Mohamed al-Felfel. Al-Nimr started a hunger strike and allegedly was tortured. The Asharq Center for Human Rights expressed concern for al-Nimr's health during his hunger strike on 21 August, calling for international support to allow access by family, lawyer and human rights activists.

 

On 15 October 2014 al-Nimr was sentenced to death by the Specialized Criminal Court for "seeking 'foreign meddling' in Saudi Arabia, 'disobeying' its rulers and taking up arms against the security forces."[] His brother, Mohammad al-Nimr, was arrested on the same day for tweeting information about the death sentence. Al-Nimr was executed on or shortly before 2 January 2016, along with 46 others. His execution was condemned by Iran and Shiites throughout the Middle East, as well as by Western figures and Sunnis opposed to sectarianism. The Saudi government said the body would not be handed over to the family


Sheikh Nimr was the Shia leader in Saudi Arabia, he fought against oppression and injustice.

He was martyred by the Saudi Arabian government.

We condemn these unjust and immoral acts to Sheik Nimr.

May Allah (swt) bless him.



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Truth 2 2015-12-28T00:27:15+01:00 2015-12-28T00:27:15+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/74 A.A.Nasr ]]> Holy prophet birthday 2015-12-24T00:52:40+01:00 2015-12-24T00:52:40+01:00 tag:http://shia110.mihanblog.com/post/73 A.A.Nasr
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